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Local History Index

Potawatomi Indian History

source: The Wisconsin Archeologist, Volumes 19-20, edited by Charles Edward Brown, VOL. 19 MADISON, WIS., APRIL, 1920 NO. 2 

Quarterly Bulletin Published by the Wisconsin Archeological Society

VOL. 19 MADISON, WIS., APRIL, 1920 NO. 2

THE POTAWATOMI

Publius V. Lawson, L. L. B.

The Potawatomi1, an Algonquian tribe, first seen, in 1634, by Nicolet, the first white man on the soil of unnamed Wisconsin, dominated in a few years all of eastern Wisconsin, the northeast quarter of Illinois, northern Indiana, part of Ohio and southern Michigan. They became masters of the fur trade traffic on Lake Michigan and the important portages to west bound rangers, were prominent in all the border wars, with both native and white for more than two centuries, adding their special horror of achievement to adorn many border tales of massacre, murder and scalping, often also tempered with kindness and justice. They fixed their name language to the map of this now vast rich empire, attached their names to the great lake they once surrounded and to most of the creeks and rivers tributary to it, and more than fifty towns, cities, counties and states, holding them in everlasting remembrance, giving them a prominent place in the history of the West.

There is a long discussion of the question whether the habitat of the Potawatomi was in the northern woods of the southern peninsula of Michigan just before Champlain's time and the advent of the missionary at Sault Ste. Marie in the Handbook of American Indians under the title of Sauk, by which it would appear that the Potawatomi were driven across the strait of Mackinac to the Sault Ste. Marie and thence found their way to the Potawatomi islands at the entrance to Green Bay, thereby starting their career and entry into history from their villages, along the entire lake front of the state.

Simon Kahquados, speaker of the Wisconsin Potawatomi band, who moved into the forest from their ancient home along the shore of Lake Michigan, in a statement of their history which he gave to Dr. Alphonse Gerend, says, '' Potawatomi old men say nation first came Door county (Wisconsin) from Mackinac. Had first vilages in that county and the islands. Spread south along lake shore. Later some came round bottom lake by Che-ca-gou. Villages there and Milwaukee"20. Of the Potawatomi village located at the site of Jacksonport, Door county, he says: "Old village there six hundred years (name of) Me-de-mo-ya-see-be." The White Fish bay tale related hereafter, he writes, "Happened about two hundred years ago" (1717). Of Old Bear Cub Bear island he writes,

"About four hundred years, ago, bear crossed from east shore of Lake Michigan, swimming in lake. Indians beckoned him to shore, Old Bear Cub Bear island."

There is a tradition that the Potawatomi, Ottawa and Chippewa, (Ojibway) were in the past one nation situated about the straits of Michilimackinac. On separating the Potawatomi moved off about the shore of Lake Michigan, carrying with them and perpetuating the national fire, which tradition says was sacredly kept burning by them throughout primitive days, thereby they have obtained the name of "those who make or keep the fire," or "people of the place of fire," which is the literal meaning of their tribal name.1

The legend of the Potawatomi tribe that they are the guardians of the sacred fire, those "who make or keep the fire," and from which their name is derived as explained to the author at an interview on May 30, 1919 with Simon Kahquados at the author's home in Menasha "does not mean literally to keep the wigwam fire from going out."

"It means that the Potawatomi are the chosen people. They are the accepted ones. They believe they are the leading tribe by divine right. The legend that "they are the people of the place of fire" is a primitive attempt to incorporate the tradition of the tribe that they are the accepted of God, into simple illustrative language, and is intended to ally the tribe with earth and Heaven."

The traditions of the Potawatomi, as first recorded by Father de Smet, gave Longfellow the matter for Hiawatha.2

French Explorers Encounter the Tribe

When Jean Xicolet, the first white man to reach unnamed Wisconsin (1634) arrived, he met the Potawatomi, Winnebago, Menominee, and Mascouten.3 The Sioux (Dakota) frightened them out and they were found at the Sault Ste Marie by the Jesuits fleeing before that warlike tribe (1641)"

"While the daring explorers Radisson and Groseilliers were on a visit to "the nation of ye stairing haires" (Ottawa) on Manitoulin Islands, urged by "ambassadors" from the Potawatomi, the travelers took canoes over the lakes, and remained the winter (1658-59) with this tribe on their Islands at the entrance to Green Bay.5

Baequeville de la Potherie describes this tribe about 1640 to 60 as occupying a small village at the entrance to Green Bay. He gives a favorable account of them. "The behavior of these people is very affable and cordial, and they make great efforts to gain the good opinion of persons who come among them. They are very intelligent; they have an inclination for raillery; their physical appearance is good; and they are great talkers. When they set their minds on anything, it is not easy to turn them from it. The old men are pruilent, sensible, and deliberate; it is seldom that they undertake any unseasonable enterprise. As they receive strangers very kindly, they are delighted when reciprocal attentions are paid to them. They have so good an opinion of themselves that they regard other Nations as inferior to them. They have made themselves arbiters for the tribes about the Bay, and for all their neighbors; and they strive to preserve fbr themselves that reputation In every direction. Their ambition to please everybody has of course caused among them jealousy and divorce; for their families are scattered to the right and to the left along the Mecheygan (Pake Michigan). With a view of gaining for themselves special esteem, they make presents of all their possessions, stripping themselves of oven necessary articles, in their eager desires to be accounted liberal. Most of the merchandise for which the Outaouas trade with the French is carried among these people."6

The Potawatomi were the first Wisconsin Indians to form an alliance with the French. They were the first to enter into trade with them and the first to visit Montreal. All of which was accomplished through the efforts of the explorer, Nicholas Perrot.7 He introduced firearms, blankets, beads and other articles of white man's manufacture among them. They proposed to set up in trade and act as purveyors of these goods to the other tribes, and offered objections to Perrot's purpose to visit these (1664).

"On one occasion, among the Pouteouatemis, he was regarded as a God. Curiosity induced him to form the acquaintance of this nation, who dwelt at the foot (entrance) of the Bay of Puans (Green Bay). They had heard of the French, and their desire to become acquainted with them in order to secure the trade with them had induced these savages to go down to Montreal, under the guidance of a wandering Outaouak who was glad to conduct them thither. The French had been described to them as covered with hair (savages have no beards), and they believed that we were of a different species from other men. They were astonished to see that we were made like themselves, and regarded it as a present that the sky and the spirits had made them in permitting one of the celestial beings to enter their land. The old men solemnly smoked a calumet and came into his presence, offering it as homage that they rendered to him. After he had smoked the calumet, it was presented by the chief to his tribesmen, who all offered it in turn to one another, blowing from their mouths the tobacco smoke over him as if it were incense." They said to him: "Thou are one of the chief spirits, since thou usest iron: it is for thee to rule and protect all men. Praised be the sun, which has instructed thee and sent thee to our country." "They adored him as a God; they took his knives and hatchets and incensed them with the tobacco-smoke from their mouths; and they presented to him so many kinds of food that he could not taste them all." On leaving the room they carried Perrot on their shoulders. "In 1665-66 he visited a Menominee village near Green Bay, Wisconsin to arrange peace between them and the Potawatomi. He was received with great pomp and given a calumet to smoke. The men assembled in the cabin of the leading war chief, where they danced the calumet to the sound of the drum. He had them assemble again the next day and made a speech. The father of the Menominee who had been murdered by the Potawatomi over which the trouble had risen, arose and took a collar that Perrot had given him; he lighted his calumet and presented it to him and then gave it to the chief and all who were present smoked it in turn. Then he began to sing, holding the calumet in one hand and the collar in the other. He went out of the cabin of the leading war chief, where they danced the calumet to the the sun, walked sometimes backwards, sometimes forwards. He made the circuit of his own cabin, went past a great number of those in the village, and finally returned to that of the chief." While at this village, a band of Potawatomi returned from Montreal and commenced a trade in peltries with the French. A party was made ready and the band of Potawatomi that followed Perrot to Montreal filled thirty canoes."

Mission of Potawatomi

Father Jean Claude Allouez, a Jesuit priest, arrived at Chequamegon Bay (1668) and to the great council which he summoned, there came 300 Potawatomi, the Sauk, Fox, Hurons, Chippewa, Illinois and Sioux. The Potawatomi had received spiritual instruction previously at Sault Ste Marie when they were there with Fathers Isaac Jogues and Charles Raymbault, both celebrated missionaries destined to great distress and the former a tragic death. Members of the tribe had been to Montreal and doubtless had received instructions in the faith in that place of churches. Father Jean Claude Allouez visited the Potawatomi (1666) and records his impressions of them.9

"The Pouteouatami are a people speaking the Algonquin tongue,

but in a dialect much harder to understand than that of the Outa

ouacs. Their country lies along the Lake of the Ilimouek (Michi

, gan). These people are warlike, and they engage in hunting and

fishing. Their country is excellently adapted to raising Indian corn, and they have fields covered with it, to which they are glad to have recourse, to avoid the famine that is only too common in these regions. They are extremely idolatrous, clinging to their ridiculous legends, and ane addicted to polygamy. We have seen them all here to the number of three hundred men bearing arms. Of all the people with whom I have mingled in these regions, they are the most docile, and the best disposed toward' the French. Their wives and daughters are more modest than those of other nations. They observe among themselves a certain sort of civility, and also show it toward strangers, which Is rare among our barbarians."

Father Allouez set out from Sault Ste Marie on November 3 with two canoes of Potawatomi, who were to convey him to their village. After baffling hardships, due to rough seas, ice cakes, snows, cold and often rain, they arrived after twentyseven days at the village of mixed tribes at the mouth of Fox river of Green Bay. Over two months later (February 17, 1669) Allouez entered a village of the Potawatomi where he was well received and he was requested to remain or send them a missionary to instruct them. He visited all their cabins and instructed them "with satisfaction to both sides."10 This village was along the shore of the lake "eight leagues" from De Pere. By the distance it was on Kewaunee or Ahnapee river.11 He "drew this conclusion from them, that since belief was so necessary to avoid hell, they were willing to pray." There were numerous villages along the lake, as he relates, "He had much dissatisfaction in not being able to go through al] the villages,'' because of their distance from each other. In a neighboring village, composed in the greater part of Potawatomi, he resolved to establish Christianity. He "explained to them our mysteries." He visited their cabins, and baptized their sick children. Some told him that since they had heard him five years before at "the Point of the Holy Ghost," they had always invoked the true God. '' I gave the catechism to the young girls and women'' to filled cabins. It was in this Relation that Father Allouez established the mission of Saint Francois Xavier and erected the "Chapel" at Rapid des Peres, (De Pere), the missionaries living in the lodges of the natives.

Rt. Rev. Dr. Sebastian G. Messmer, writing of the establishment of the mission of St. Francois Xavier at Rapid des Peres, says:

"This mission became at once the Christian headquarters of the 600 Indians, Potawatomi, Outagami, Sauk, Winnebago, living in the neighborhood." Father jean Claude Allouez, its founder (1669 December 2) "was the first priest in the Fox river valley, as well as this mission "Chapel" the first place of worship."

Allouez remained to minister to the spiritual welfare of the Indians of eastern Wisconsin for upwards of thirty-five years and lies buried in De Pere within the center of the area of his noble work. His was an example of self-sacrifice, and devotion of a life time to noble deeds seldom found among the people of this world. He went first to the Potawatomi on arrival in the Pox river valley of Green Bay as related above.

He was aided in the work (1670) by Father Claude Dablon, superior of western missions, who came from Quebec. After his return Father Louis Andre arrived (fall of 1670). A missionary was resident at Green Bay in the time of Charlevoix (1721). Father Charles Albanel, superior of western missions, was in charge of St. Francois Xavier where he "built a beautiful chapel and church." (1676). This was the church at De Pere to which Nicholas Perrot gave (1686) the silver ostensorium now deposited in the State Historical Museum at Madison. Father Jean Enjalran resided at De Pere (1680). During his mission the warring tribes burned the church. The mission at De Pere was then supposed to have been abandoned. Rev. Jean Baptiste Chardon administered to the spiritual guidance of the Indians near the old French fort at Green Bay (1721). He was sent to the Illinois and was the last of the Jesuit fathers to preach to the Potawatomi of Door county. No other priest came into the region until Father Gabriel Richard of Detroit made his toilsome visit of 1820.13

When Father Marquette, after his first voyage over Wisconsin waterways discovered the Mississippi river and had returned to the mission of St. Francois Xavier at De Pere very ill, he remained there all that winter (1673) and the following summer too ill to travel. With such strength as he retained he wrote his journal and made his map, the one known as the Thevenot map, published in 1681. When autumn came, altho far from well, he left the mission house to found the mission of the Immaculate Conception at the Illinois Indian village near Utiea (1674). There were ten canoes. Two French engages were his sole white companions. Several Potawatomi of Wisconsin and a few Illinois Indians composed the escourt. The journey was made through the Sturgeon Bay portage and along the lake to the site of Chicago, where they were iee and snow bound until spring.14

The First Wars

Chief Sinagos, of the Ottawa, had gone to Montreal and exchanged his pelts for guns and ammunition intending to make war on the Sioux. He organized a war party of a thousand Ottawa, Potawatomi, Sauk and Fox which met disastrous defeat by the Sioux (1670). Sinagos was made to eat his own flesh. The Potawatomi early "took to their heels" and came off with slight loss.15 When Perrot journeyed to the Miami (1671) to extend the invitation of the Intendant to the great council at Sault Ste Marie, he was escourted by the Potawatomi, and they were among the fourteen native tribes who attended (1671) the great gathering at Sault Ste Marie when Sieur de St. Lusson erected the cross, attached the arms of France and took possession of the country as far as the seas in the name of Louis XIV of France.

Onanguisse, chief of the Potawatomi, was reported (1683) as urging the Illinois Indians to do without the French, "leading them to hope that he will supply them with goods.'' The missionary "house gives him umbrage," because he thinks "it does not favor him." Monsieur Duluth had been sent out by La Barre, governor of New France, to "proceed in warlike array to speak to the Potawatomi." The raids of the Iroquois among the Illinois and Wisconsin natives by 1695 led to alliance With the French for self protection. The plan of the French to withdraw arms and powder from the Wisconsin tribes to compel them to fight the Iroquois nearly led to the opposite result, as chief Onanguisse informed the French at a council in Montreal that "we have in our country none of the articles we require and which you promised us last year," "and the French come to visit us no more. You shall never, never see us again, this is the last time we shall come to talk with you." The report says "the boldness with which he spoke closed everyones lips." Guns, powder and ball were distributed at once and the tribes returned to protect themselves and the French from the Iroquois and the English.1"

Simon Kahquados (Quitos), speaker of the AVisconsin band of Potawatomi located in Forest county in the northern Wisconsin woods, a remnant of this once powerful tribe, imparted to Dr. Gerend of Cato, much of the traditions and history of the Wisconsin lake shore villages of his people.26 Some of this information has been quoted by Mr. J. P. Schumacher in his Door county report (Note 26) and will be repeated here only in part to preserve connection with the history of the entire shore villages.

Potawatomi Islands

The islands at the head of the peninsula entrance to Green Bay have been from the earliest times known as the Potawatomi islands. Rock Island was visited by Bishop Jackson Kemper (1834) who marvelled at the clearness of the surrounding water. He mentions the abrupt picturesque cliffs buttressing the island, which he could find no way to ascend. The Island still bore the sobriquet of Louse Island. This was a remnant of the name of Potawatomi islands, the French having called the tribe Les Poux (Louse). The island has since been known as Rock island and is the most remote from the land.17 The largest of the Islands was named Washington island by the whites in 1816. It contains thirty-six square miles of land and is rich in archeological remains. The Potawatomi named it Me she ne ma ke ning or Leader island. Its harbor was Ce ku tay we que ing or Cekutay's or Woman harbor after the chief, who afterward had his village on Detroit island and the northern most point of the mainland, Gills point. Cherry island, Ke che ma ne do, meaning "God made Cherry island." Fish Gut island, Pekqua-ge:me-mis. Bear island, Wah-ya-quah-kah-me-cok. Detroit island, Mis-ko-me-ne-kahming or big raspberry. Plum island, Agah-shing-mis-ko-megah-ning, meaning small raspberry island. Spider island, Mah-ko-me-no-sha. Pilot island, Kah-ish-to-me-mis, meaning Sea Gull island. Chambers island, Ke-che-mah-ne-do. Gravel island, Mah-ko-me-ne-shine-me-nis or bear island. A legend of this island relates that four hundred years ago a spirit bear was seen crossing the lake from the east shore. The Potawatomi beckoned him ashore. Since then they call the island Old Bear Cub island. In the group there are also Hog and Raspberry Islands, a total of about twenty islands.26

The New York Colonial Documents state that in 1668 the entire tribe resided on the Potawatomi islands, but at that time Allouez, as previously stated, visited numerous villages along the shore of Lake Michigan in Door and Kewaunee counties and there were other villages so far strung along the shore he did not visit them. Hennepin's map of 1698 has the name Potawatomi spread over the entire length of the Green Bay peninsula, a distance of over one hunderd miles. It touches Death Door, the strait between the mainland point and the islands, but does not cover the latter.19 The map of Father Galinee (1670) named Green Bay, Potawatomi bay and the islands the Potawatomi islands. La Salle reports a■ village of Potawatomi (1679) on them. Charlevoix writes in 1721, that the islands at the entrance to La Bay des Puants (Green Bay) "were formerly inhabited by the Potawatomi whose name they bear." "The Potawatomi occupy at the present time one of the smallest of these Islands, and have besides two other villages one on St. Joseph river (Indiana) and one at Detroit" (Michigan).18 In a census made in 1728, it was reported there was a village of twenty of this tribe on an island in La Bay (Green Bay).20

Potherie writes that the Potawatomi, Sauk and Menominee dwell on Green Bay, and the Potawatomi "families are scattered to the right and left along Lake Michigan (1722)21. The map of Seure Robert de Vaugondu (1755) shows the name Potawatomi islands at the entrance to Green Bay. t

Judge Samuel A. Storrow passed the Potawatomi islands from Bay de Noquet bound for Green Bay in an open boat manned by soldiers (1817), "the course lay among islands. The first, seven miles from the mainland, contained a large Indian village." On one island they met Ce-to-ton, or the Spring Deer, "a fierce and turbulant character." His interpreter said he was an "Ottawa warrior" but the evidence given below with the name correctly spelled shows him to have been a Potawatomi. They crossed to Detroit island and found Ce-to-ton's village to be "a number of cabins" in the midst of "a large wretchedly tilled cornfield." There they met "an old chief of not less than ninety years of age who had been a warrior from his youth. He was naked, like those about him, and by no means deficient in strength and agility."22

He states that Porte des Morts, Death Door, receives its name "From the destruction at this place of a number of Potawatomi. "23 George R. Fox gives the following account of this occurrence:

"It happened before the coming of the French, for by then the official designation of the passage as found on government charts, Porte des Morts (Death's Door) was applied. In peace and plenty the Nocquets had long lived on the shores of the islands of the Potawatomi chain. Hunger they knew not; the lake was full of flsh: in the woods were an abundance of deer, bear, turkeys and pigeons, and flocks of ducks and geese frequented the lake and bays. Of all of the islands, Washington was the great game preserve. Hence one day, when a band of Potawatomies, who resided on the neighboring point of Door county, invaded the land of the Nocquets while the Catter were away, the spirit of trouble spread his mantle over the peaceful isles. The injury and insult must be wiped' out. The poor redskin had recourse only to bloodshed. War was declared by the simpLe process of the Nocquet warriors embarking in canoes for a raid on the Potawatomi. But the medicine men were failures or the braves neglected, in their haste, to propitiate the manito, for they had only gone a portion of the four miles which separated them from their enemies, when a breath of wind struck them, the forerunner of a hurricane which swept the waters in green masses over the frail craft". Of all the brave band which went forth, not again was one seen alive. To the wives, the mothers, the fathers, waiting on the shore, no word came back. Day by day they gazed out over the strait. And then—their warriors came home to them, tossed up on the beach of Detroit Island. Friend and relative could' do no more than hurry the bodies to hastily prepared graves. Here, in this open spaoe, so the story goes, they were interred."24

Door County Chiefs and Villages

The greater part of the Green Bay peninsula that points north with a base of about thirty miles, gradually tapering to serrated bluffs about one hundred miles north, with the islands, is in Door county. The fertile lands of this picturesque region were once covered in many places with the wigwams of the Potawatomi.7 They had a big village at the site of Bay Settlement on the east shore ot" the bay, near the city of Green Bay, the Indian name of which was Wequayong meaning small harbor.26 From 1849 to I860 there were Catholic priests at Bay Settlement. After the Civil War the Potawatomi mission was discontinued at that point. Traveling north along the bay shore another village lay in Section 21 of Town Union.-" A large village was at Sturgeon Bay. The Potawatomi name for the bay was Na-ma-we-qui-tong. Me-shim-e-nah, or "Apple Call," was a Sturgeon Bay chief. On the south shore of Egg Harbor a small band camped (1850) every fall for a number of years while hunting and fishing.-'' The harbor was known to the Potawatomi as Che-bah-ye-sko-da-ming, or Ghost Door. At Ellison was located the village of Joe Sahbe, "Feather of the rolling cloud," a son of Chief Neatoshingh or Mishicott of Manitowoc county. At Gills Rock, Wah ya gui kah nick cock also written Wah ye gue kah me kong, meaning "head of the land or lands end," at the northernmost limit of the mainland was situated a Potawatomi village. Chief Ce-cu-tai, also written Ce ku tay, was buried there.

Traveling south along the shore of Lake Michigan there was a line of villages and camps all the way to Chicago, three hundred miles of Potawatomi habitations. The name the tribe gave to the lake, Michigami or Mitchaw Sagiegan, "great lake," has with some changes in spelling become indelibly attached to that great inland sea, and the flourishing: commonwealth that borders its shores.27 The old village of chief Sahbe and Ce ku tay was located at Rowleys Bay, the Potawatomi name for the bay being Wash be gah tong or hole harbor. North Bay was called Wah sa.ka da ta wong, or burning bay; Baileys Harbor was All guah o ne ga ning, or fish go to shore. The Potawatomi had a village at Jacksonport for six hundred years. It was named Me de mo ya see be, or Old Woman creek. White Fish Bay, Ahqua she magaming or save our lives, was the site of a Potawatomi village. A legend of the bay states that two hundred years ago (1717) a, band of the tribe took canoes and went to Manitou island to pick cranberries. On their return they were lost in a fog on the lake for six days and nights without food. Almost ex. hausted they blundered into the bay and in sight of the bluff. This village was the former home of Simon Kahquados, whose father died there. The village was located on White Fish Bay creek. The Sturgeon Bay portage at the lake end was known as One gah ming, or carry a canoe back and forth. The village at the lake end of the portage.had the same name. Two miles south of the above portage village there was situated a Potawatomi village named Me she e gah ning-, or old cleared land. This was a large village under chief Megwun or Feather, and Na ne guns, Bright Sunshine.

Kewaunee and Manitowoc Counties

The city and county are named for the river which is said to mean "prairie hen." By another authority it is said to mean "I cross point of land by boat."27 Simon Kahquados tives its significance as "coming back." The Potawatomi village at Kewaunee was the largest in size next to the Sturgeon Bay village. There was a smaller village of the tribe at Algoma, formerly named Ahnapee. The Red river that empties into Green Bay was Mash-qua-gah-mik-sebe, meaning j-mall village along the river.

The name of Manitowoc city and county came from the older name of the river. The Potawatomi name for the river was Mah ne do wok. For the rapids, Mah ne do wok sob se je wun, for the rock island in the river Ke he me ne te kon»-. The name of the village at Manitowoc was Ko do da na Mah ne do wok.26 The name is variously said to signify, manito, spirit land, devils den, spirit woods, a bewitched hollow tree, all of which may be good guesses.27 Another is "inclined to think that the name Manitowoc was derived" from the imaginary presence of a "large wooden cross, such as the Jesuit missionaries frequently planted," and is based on the supposition this was the village where Father Marais had wintered in 1699.-" It means "God's children."122

One of the prominent chiefs of the Potawatomi was Wau me go sa ko or Wampum, or Mexico, whose village was at Manitowoc Rapids. His native name means "sacred sailmaker," also translated "A Loon."122 He was a Chippewa born in 1789 and died in 1844. His father was Chai con da and his grandfather Etoi ge shak, who came from Canada with a band of Chippewa in 1750, and who located their village on Manitowoc river. The band was composed of Potawatomi, a few Chippewa and Ottawa, Wampum had several wives. Kosh ko ne or Jumping Like Grasshopper, a daughter of chief Mishicott, was one of them. He had seven sons.14 With his brother chief Thunder he led his band on the side of the United States in the war of 1812,26 at Mackinac Island. He never went to Kansas.26 His son, John Y. Mexico, was a Catholic, and never married. Wampum signed the treaties of Butte des Morts (1827), Green Bay (1828), Prairie du Chien (1829), ana Chicago (1833). Chaieonda his son had his village on air island in Town Eaton (N. W. V4, Sec. 6). He united his band with the Potawatomi about the Manitowoc forks. It was to these villages that Mrs. Cato Stanton, a Narraganset Indian, swiftly paddled her canoe during the Indian scare of 1862, to warn the Potowatomi to keep close to their cabins.

Thunder, chief of a Potawatomi band, and a brother of Wampum, had four wives and thirty-.five children. One daughter was living on Beaver island. Lake Michigan (1917). His sonr Quatquattoy, died near Antigo in 1897. He "was in war at Detroit with George Washington," and "signed treaty 1789" (Jan. 9, 1789, Chippewa, Ottawa, Potawatomi). He made four journeys to Washington. Chief Mishicott, Nea to shing, was the father of one of Wampum's wives. Jennie Yellowbird, sister of Chief Yellowbird, married Abra Mishicott, grandson of the old Manitowoc county chief of that name.-''

Other Potawatomi chiefs were: Ah kee way see, Old man Forever, father to Old Ketoose. He died before 1833.

Old Ketoose, a Potawatomi chief, died about ;ix miles east of Depere, in 1869, aged about 110 years (1759). He was married twice and his second wife died before his death. Her name was Tah pep bid. She was a granddaughter of chief Nen gah sum. Old Katoose was a peace chief. He never went to war. He was always for peace with the whites. He refused to sign any treaty.

His son, Nengau sim, died at White Fish Bay, when thirty years old, in about 1856. He was born at Old Ketoose's village. He was speaker for the band, and father of Simon Kahquadros, present speaker for the Wisconsin band. Simon Kahquadros is cousin of Joe Wisconsin, and the late Chas. Kisheck. Simon Kahquadros was born near Mishicott, May 30, 1851, according to a record book kept by Kisheck, his uncle and son of Old Ketoose. The book was burned in the loss of his house in 1888. Simon has followed the business of a timber cruiser for forty years. Joe Wisconsin is about 95 years old now (1919). Was born at Sheboygan Falls. His mother was a sister of Old Ketoose. His father was Kes kis hee shaw. His grandfather was Pa mam wee.122

Neshoto, "he or she," was the Indian name for twin rivers, the modern city of Two Rivers. Near that city, on the shorebordering Lake Michigan, is a large sandy brush grown area on which "have been found more copper implements, weapons and ornaments fashioned by Indian hands than anywhere else in the United States." From the earliest records shown to and intermingled with the settlement of the district by the whites the Potawatomi were always there. Somewhere along this lake shore, Tonty and his men fleeing from the sack of Crevecoeur (Broken Heart) on the Illinois, came to a Potawatomi village, finding no one at home, the starving fugitives sought for food and found some corn and frozen pumpkins. It is thought to have been Tonty who then lost his valiant sword, since discovered buried beneath the ground near Neshoto.26

Captain Thomas G. Anderson, a trader located at Milwaukee, on a journey to Green Bay was entertained in the lodge of the old Potawatomi chief Xanabougou, at Two Rivers (1804).30

Colonel Abram Edwards took a birch bark eanoe trip from Green Bay to Chicago (1818) manned by seven expert paddlers, detached by Major Zachary Taylor. He paw at Two Rivers, Manitowoc, Sheboygan, Milwaukee, the shore of the lake lined with Indians. Near Mantowoc many were out in canoes spearing white fish. There was only one white man in the entire distance.31

Morgan L. Martin says when he came to Wisconsin, (1824) "the whole region along the shore of Lake Michigan to Milwaukee was occupied by Potawatomi and Ottawa. Their principal villages were at Manitowoc, Pigeon and Sheboygan rivers.32

Judge James S. Anderson, relates that the Potawatomi band of Katoos or Kitosh was on Neshoto river. The chief was tall with a large frame, spare, supple, friendly to whites (1852). Their planting ground was in Town Kossuth (Section 28) where they raised large crops of corn, pumpkins, squash, beans and potatoes. Each family worked their own plot of garden. In the fall they packed corn and blankets on their ponies and disappeared toward the north to their hunting grounds. Their lodges were bark tepees. The squaws made beadwork, baskets and buckskin. He tells of an exciting dance at the planting grounds in the autumn of 1853, which may have been a farewell as they never returned as a band.33 Quitos had a camp site and planting ground at Cato Falls, where the narrow gorge made a good fishing place. The name of the Potawatomi village north of Cato was Pe ney we se da ink, Partridge feet. The Potawatomi name for Molasses creek was Ma kah da wah gah mik, Black water creek, for Silver creek, Mas qua we gat ik, Red sand creek; for Two Creeks, Wah quah say se sock, Second growth birch. Chief Me she me na, Red Cloud, had a camp on Mud creek. He was a Sturgeon Bay chief.2■ There was a Potawatomi village site and cemetery near the mounds in Town Sehleswig, opposite Kiel on the Sheboygan river.70 There was a Potawatomi village site, cornfields and burial ground on the Smith farm on the north side of the Neshoto river, one mile south of the village of Larrabee in Town Gibson.70

consin woods, a remnant of this once powerful tribe, imparted to Dr. Gerend of Cato, much of the traditions and history of the Wisconsin lake shore villages of his people.26 Some of this information has been quoted by Mr. J. P. Schumacher in his Door county report (Note 26) and will be repeated here only in part to preserve connection with the history of the entire shore villages.

Potawatomi Islands

The islands at the head of the peninsula entrance to Green Bay have been from the earliest times known as the Potawatomi islands. Rock Island was visited by Bishop Jackson Kemper (1834) who marvelled at the clearness of the surrounding water. He mentions the abrupt picturesque cliffs buttressing the island, which he could find no way to ascend. The Island still bore the sobriquet of Louse Island. This was a remnant of the name of Potawatomi islands, the French having called the tribe Les Poux (Louse). The island has since been known as Rock island and is the most remote from the land.17 The largest of the Islands was named Washington island by the whites in 1816. It contains thirty-six square miles of land and is rich in archeological remains. The Potawatomi named it Me she ne ma ke ning or Leader island. Its harbor was Ce ku tay we que ing or Cekutay's or Woman harbor after the chief, who afterward had his village on Detroit island and the northern most point of the mainland, Gills point. Cherry island, Ke che ma ne do, meaning "God made Cherry island." Fish Gut island, Pekqua-ge:me-mis. Bear island, Wah-ya-quah-kah-me-cok. Detroit island, Mis-ko-me-ne-kahming or big raspberry. Plum island, Agah-shing-mis-ko-megah-ning, meaning small raspberry island. Spider island, Mah-ko-me-no-sha. Pilot island, Kah-ish-to-me-mis, meaning Sea Gull island. Chambers island, Ke-che-mah-ne-do. Gravel island, Mah-ko-me-ne-shine-me-nis or bear island. A legend of this island relates that four hundred years ago a spirit bear was seen crossing the lake from the east shore. The Potawatomi beckoned him ashore. Since then they call the island Old Bear Cub island. In the group there are also Hog and Raspberry Islands, a total of about twenty islands.

The New York Colonial Documents state that in 1668 the entire tribe resided on the Potawatomi islands, but at that time Allouez, as previously stated, visited numerous villages along the shore of Lake Michigan in Door and Kewaunee counties and there were other villages so far strung along the shore he did not visit them. Hennepin's map of 1698 has the name Potawatomi spread over the entire length of the Green Bay peninsula, a distance of over one hunderd miles. It touches Death Door, the strait between the mainland point and the islands, but does not cover the latter.19 The map of Father Galinee (1670) named Green Bay, Potawatomi bay and the islands the Potawatomi islands. La Salle reports a■ village of Potawatomi (1679) on them. Charlevoix writes in 1721, that the islands at the entrance to La Bay des Puants (Green Bay) "were formerly inhabited by the Potawatomi whose name they bear." "The Potawatomi occupy at the present time one of the smallest of these Islands, and have besides two other villages one on St. Joseph river (Indiana) and one at Detroit" (Michigan).18 In a census made in 1728, it was reported there was a village of twenty of this tribe on an island in La Bay (Green Bay).20

Potherie writes that the Potawatomi, Sauk and Menominee dwell on Green Bay, and the Potawatomi "families are scattered to the right and left along Lake Michigan (1722)21. The map of Seure Robert de Vaugondu (1755) shows the name Potawatomi islands at the entrance to Green Bay. t

Judge Samuel A. Storrow passed the Potawatomi islands from Bay de Noquet bound for Green Bay in an open boat manned by soldiers (1817), "the course lay among islands. The first, seven miles from the mainland, contained a large Indian village." On one island they met Ce-to-ton, or the Spring Deer, "a fierce and turbulant character." His interpreter said he was an "Ottawa warrior" but the evidence given below with the name correctly spelled shows him to have been a Potawatomi. They crossed to Detroit island and found Ce-to-ton's village to be "a number of cabins" in the midst of "a large wretchedly tilled cornfield." There they met "an old chief of not less than ninety years of age who had been a warrior from his youth. He was naked, like those about him, and by no means deficient in strength and agility."22

He states that Porte des Morts, Death Door, receives its name "From the destruction at this place of a number of Potawatomi. "23 George R. Fox gives the following account of this occurrence:

"It happened before the coming of the French, for by then the official designation of the passage as found on government charts, Porte des Morts (Death's Door) was applied. In peace and plenty the Nocquets had long lived on the shores of the islands of the Potawatomi chain. Hunger they knew not; the lake was full of flsh: in the woods were an abundance of deer, bear, turkeys and pigeons, and flocks of ducks and geese frequented the lake and bays. Of all of the islands, Washington was the great game preserve. Hence one day, when a band of Potawatomies, who resided on the neighboring point of Door county, invaded the land of the Nocquets while the Catter were away, the spirit of trouble spread his mantle over the peaceful isles. The injury and insult must be wiped' out. The poor redskin had recourse only to bloodshed. War was declared by the simpLe process of the Nocquet warriors embarking in canoes for a raid on the Potawatomi. But the medicine men were failures or the braves neglected, in their haste, to propitiate the manito, for they had only gone a portion of the four miles which separated them from their enemies, when a breath of wind struck them, the forerunner of a hurricane which swept the waters in green masses over the frail craft". Of all the brave band which went forth, not again was one seen alive. To the wives, the mothers, the fathers, waiting on the shore, no word came back. Day by day they gazed out over the strait. And then—their warriors came home to them, tossed up on the beach of Detroit Island. Friend and relative could' do no more than hurry the bodies to hastily prepared graves. Here, in this open spaoe, so the story goes, they were interred."24

Door County Chiefs and Villages

The greater part of the Green Bay peninsula that points north with a base of about thirty miles, gradually tapering to serrated bluffs about one hundred miles north, with the islands, is in Door county. The fertile lands of this picturesque region were once covered in many places with the wigwams of the Potawatomi.7 They had a big village at the site of Bay Settlement on the east shore ot" the bay, near the city of Green Bay, the Indian name of which was Wequayong meaning small harbor.26 From 1849 to I860 there were Catholic priests at Bay Settlement. After the Civil War the Potawatomi mission was discontinued at that point. Traveling north along the bay shore another village lay in Section 21 of Town Union.-" A large village was at Sturgeon Bay. The Potawatomi name for the bay was Na-ma-we-qui-tong. Me-shim-e-nah, or "Apple Call," was a Sturgeon Bay chief. On the south shore of Egg Harbor a small band camped (1850) every fall for a number of years while hunting and fishing.-'' The harbor was known to the Potawatomi as Che-bah-ye-sko-da-ming, or Ghost Door. At Ellison was located the village of Joe Sahbe, "Feather of the rolling cloud," a son of Chief Neatoshingh or Mishicott of Manitowoc county. At Gills Rock, Wah ya gui kah nick cock also written Wah ye gue kah me kong, meaning "head of the land or lands end," at the northernmost limit of the mainland was situated a Potawatomi village. Chief Ce-cu-tai, also written Ce ku tay, was buried there.

Traveling south along the shore of Lake Michigan there was a line of villages and camps all the way to Chicago, three hundred miles of Potawatomi habitations. The name the tribe gave to the lake, Michigami or Mitchaw Sagiegan, "great lake," has with some changes in spelling become indelibly attached to that great inland sea, and the flourishing: commonwealth that borders its shores.27 The old village of chief Sahbe and Ce ku tay was located at Rowleys Bay, the Potawatomi name for the bay being Wash be gah tong or hole harbor. North Bay was called Wah sa.ka da ta wong, or burning bay; Baileys Harbor was All guah o ne ga ning, or fish go to shore. The Potawatomi had a village at Jacksonport for six hundred years. It was named Me de mo ya see be, or Old Woman creek. White Fish Bay, Ahqua she magaming or save our lives, was the site of a Potawatomi village. A legend of the bay states that two hundred years ago (1717) a, band of the tribe took canoes and went to Manitou island to pick cranberries. On their return they were lost in a fog on the lake for six days and nights without food. Almost ex. hausted they blundered into the bay and in sight of the bluff. This village was the former home of Simon Kahquados, whose father died there. The village was located on White Fish Bay creek. The Sturgeon Bay portage at the lake end was known as One gah ming, or carry a canoe back and forth. The village at the lake end of the portage.had the same name. Two miles south of the above portage village there was situated a Potawatomi village named Me she e gah ning-, or old cleared land. This was a large village under chief Megwun or Feather, and Na ne guns, Bright Sunshine.

Kewaunee and Manitowoc Counties

The city and county are named for the river which is said to mean "prairie hen." By another authority it is said to mean "I cross point of land by boat."27 Simon Kahquados tives its significance as "coming back." The Potawatomi village at Kewaunee was the largest in size next to the Sturgeon Bay village. There was a smaller village of the tribe at Algoma, formerly named Ahnapee. The Red river that empties into Green Bay was Mash-qua-gah-mik-sebe, meaning j-mall village along the river.

The name of Manitowoc city and county came from the older name of the river. The Potawatomi name for the river was Mah ne do wok. For the rapids, Mah ne do wok sob se je wun, for the rock island in the river Ke he me ne te kon»-. The name of the village at Manitowoc was Ko do da na Mah ne do wok.26 The name is variously said to signify, manito, spirit land, devils den, spirit woods, a bewitched hollow tree, all of which may be good guesses.27 Another is "inclined to think that the name Manitowoc was derived" from the imaginary presence of a "large wooden cross, such as the Jesuit missionaries frequently planted," and is based on the supposition this was the village where Father Marais had wintered in 1699.-" It means "God's children."122

One of the prominent chiefs of the Potawatomi was Wau me go sa ko or Wampum, or Mexico, whose village was at Manitowoc Rapids. His native name means "sacred sailmaker," also translated "A Loon."122 He was a Chippewa born in 1789 and died in 1844. His father was Chai con da and his grandfather Etoi ge shak, who came from Canada with a band of Chippewa in 1750, and who located their village on Manitowoc river. The band was composed of Potawatomi, a few Chippewa and Ottawa, Wampum had several wives. Kosh ko ne or Jumping Like Grasshopper, a daughter of chief Mishicott, was one of them. He had seven sons.14 With his brother chief Thunder he led his band on the side of the United States in the war of 1812,26 at Mackinac Island. He never went to Kansas.26 His son, John Y. Mexico, was a Catholic, and never married. Wampum signed the treaties of Butte des Morts (1827), Green Bay (1828), Prairie du Chien (1829), ana Chicago (1833). Chaieonda his son had his village on air island in Town Eaton (N. W. V4, Sec. 6). He united his band with the Potawatomi about the Manitowoc forks. It was to these villages that Mrs. Cato Stanton, a Narraganset Indian, swiftly paddled her canoe during the Indian scare of 1862, to warn the Potowatomi to keep close to their cabins.

Thunder, chief of a Potawatomi band, and a brother of Wampum, had four wives and thirty-.five children. One daughter was living on Beaver island. Lake Michigan (1917). His sonr Quatquattoy, died near Antigo in 1897. He "was in war at Detroit with George Washington," and "signed treaty 1789" (Jan. 9, 1789, Chippewa, Ottawa, Potawatomi). He made four journeys to Washington. Chief Mishicott, Nea to shing, was the father of one of Wampum's wives. Jennie Yellowbird, sister of Chief Yellowbird, married Abra Mishicott, grandson of the old Manitowoc county chief of that name.-''

Other Potawatomi chiefs were: Ah kee way see, Old man Forever, father to Old Ketoose. He died before 1833.

Old Ketoose, a Potawatomi chief, died about ;ix miles east of Depere, in 1869, aged about 110 years (1759). He was married twice and his second wife died before his death. Her name was Tah pep bid. She was a granddaughter of chief Nen gah sum. Old Katoose was a peace chief. He never went to war. He was always for peace with the whites. He refused to sign any treaty.

His son, Nengau sim, died at White Fish Bay, when thirty years old, in about 1856. He was born at Old Ketoose's village. He was speaker for the band, and father of Simon Kahquadros, present speaker for the Wisconsin band. Simon Kahquadros is cousin of Joe Wisconsin, and the late Chas. Kisheck. Simon Kahquadros was born near Mishicott, May 30, 1851, according to a record book kept by Kisheck, his uncle and son of Old Ketoose. The book was burned in the loss of his house in 1888. Simon has followed the business of a timber cruiser for forty years. Joe Wisconsin is about 95 years old now (1919). Was born at Sheboygan Falls. His mother was a sister of Old Ketoose. His father was Kes kis hee shaw. His grandfather was Pa mam wee.122

Neshoto, "he or she," was the Indian name for twin rivers, the modern city of Two Rivers. Near that city, on the shorebordering Lake Michigan, is a large sandy brush grown area on which "have been found more copper implements, weapons and ornaments fashioned by Indian hands than anywhere else in the United States." From the earliest records shown to and intermingled with the settlement of the district by the whites the Potawatomi were always there. Somewhere along this lake shore, Tonty and his men fleeing from the sack of Crevecoeur (Broken Heart) on the Illinois, came to a Potawatomi village, finding no one at home, the starving fugitives sought for food and found some corn and frozen pumpkins. It is thought to have been Tonty who then lost his valiant sword, since discovered buried beneath the ground near Neshoto.26

Captain Thomas G. Anderson, a trader located at Milwaukee, on a journey to Green Bay was entertained in the lodge of the old Potawatomi chief Xanabougou, at Two Rivers (1804).30

Colonel Abram Edwards took a birch bark eanoe trip from Green Bay to Chicago (1818) manned by seven expert paddlers, detached by Major Zachary Taylor. He paw at Two Rivers, Manitowoc, Sheboygan, Milwaukee, the shore of the lake lined with Indians. Near Mantowoc many were out in canoes spearing white fish. There was only one white man in the entire distance.31

Morgan L. Martin says when he came to Wisconsin, (1824) "the whole region along the shore of Lake Michigan to Milwaukee was occupied by Potawatomi and Ottawa. Their principal villages were at Manitowoc, Pigeon and Sheboygan rivers.32

Judge James S. Anderson, relates that the Potawatomi band of Katoos or Kitosh was on Neshoto river. The chief was tall with a large frame, spare, supple, friendly to whites (1852). Their planting ground was in Town Kossuth (Section 28) where they raised large crops of corn, pumpkins, squash, beans and potatoes. Each family worked their own plot of garden. In the fall they packed corn and blankets on their ponies and disappeared toward the north to their hunting grounds. Their lodges were bark tepees. The squaws made beadwork, baskets and buckskin. He tells of an exciting dance at the planting grounds in the autumn of 1853, which may have been a farewell as they never returned as a band.33 Quitos had a camp site and planting ground at Cato Falls, where the narrow gorge made a good fishing place. The name of the Potawatomi village north of Cato was Pe ney we se da ink, Partridge feet. The Potawatomi name for Molasses creek was Ma kah da wah gah mik, Black water creek, for Silver creek, Mas qua we gat ik, Red sand creek; for Two Creeks, Wah quah say se sock, Second growth birch. Chief Me she me na, Red Cloud, had a camp on Mud creek. He was a Sturgeon Bay chief.2■ There was a Potawatomi village site and cemetery near the mounds in Town Sehleswig, opposite Kiel on the Sheboygan river.70 There was a Potawatomi village site, cornfields and burial ground on the Smith farm on the north side of the Neshoto river, one mile south of the village of Larrabee in Town Gibson.70

The Potawatomi village of Old Katoose was in Section 28, Town Kossuth, where it had been located for two hundred years or more. The Potawatomi name of this old village was Kah kah be gah sing, meaning small falls. It was a large village. It was here that chief Wampum died in the winter, and the members of the band drew him on a hand sled to Manitowoc Rapids where he was buried.

The Potawatomi village of Black Earth was located about eight miles north of the present village of Mishicott. It was on the East Twin river, and extended over about one square mile, with a population of one thousand souls. Simon Kahquados was born in this village in 3851. Chief Thunder died there in 1853. The Potawatomi name for Black Earth village was Ma kah da wah gah cok.

There was a Potawatomi village between the Black Earth village and the present white village of Mishicott. It was located on the west bank of the East Twin river and opposite a big spring on the East bank. The name of this village was Ke-she-dah-ge-bing, Big Spring village.

There was a village on the West Twin river about four miles north of the present city of Two Rivers, named A ko no cok, meaning Tail Rapids.122

The mission at Manitowoc Rapids and Two Rivers was conducted by Rev. J. Nuyts of the Holy Cross Order (1849-1853) being the last of the Catholic missions amoiig this Wisconsin

band. Simon Kahquados, living near Wausaukee, at present and now spokesman and historian of the tribe in Forest county was born near Mishicott in this county Charles Kisheck who was elected delegate of the Forest county band of Potawatomi, was born at Manitowoc in about 1840 and died in 1914 in Forest county.

In Sheboygan County

The great village122 of the Potawatomi was at Little Prairie south of Elkhart Lake. There was a Potawatomi village between Cedar and Elkhart lakes. Chief Qweewe resided on the Sheboygan river and afterward moved his band to the Manitowoc forks. On the first whiskey that came to Sheboygan river, Qweewe (or Aqweewe) became drunk and in the melee that followed had his nose bitten off. He was said to be a good doctor and a big man. He went to Kansas with some head men of the Potawatomi to report on the country. While hunting buffalo they had a war with the Sioux. Wampum and Qweewe went to Canada, but returned after one year. They are said not to have gone to Iowa as "Some half breed showed them the wrong land." After the treaty of 1833 he lived at Little Prairie. The last time Qweewe went to Kansas he led a large party of Potawatomi, but only half of them remained. His wife was Kephgogua Nawuik, Noon Sun. They had six children. Some of them died at the Manitowoc forks. His son, Wah wah gah sun, Wild Dog, was killed on the Little Wolf river, Waupaca county, at Big Stone. Ah guns, Small Woman, was a daughter of Qweewe. Qweewe and his brother, Che cha kons, were born in Chicago and both signed the 1833 treaty at Chicago. Dr. Ben Ahquee Wee, or Qweewe, died in 1916 in Forest county. Che chau kons was a leading war chief. He died and was buried at the village at Skunk Grove hill in Wood county. He went to Kansas for five years. After the treaty at Chicago, he went to Topenebee's Potawatomi prairie on the St. Joseph river. Chief Crutch lived on the Sheboygan river. Che che bin quay was interpreter for the Potawatomi located there. When the first white men came to erect a dam on the river, the chiefs led five hundred Potawatomi to protest, June 5, 1834. One of the chiefs of the Sheboygan, Joe Wisconsin, Sah gah gue je ma, or Lizard, is still

alive and residing in Forest county. His age is 95. He is a cousin of Simon Kahquados. His father was buried at Keshena.26 The Potawatomi camped along the lake shore, three miles south of Sheboygan at the mouth of Black river, as late as 1877.71

In Ozaukee County

One of the Ozaukee county chiefs was Nacheway, or Climb Hill. The best known chief was Waubeka, from whom the town of Waubeka takes its name. The records of the Wisconsin Archeological Society describe his village site and burial place as follows :133

"An Indian village was located on a flat now occupied by houses and gardens, on the east side of the Main street and on the north side of the Milwaukee River (Cent. Sec. 28) in the village of Waubeka. It is said to have numbered about 100 inhabitants in 1850. Waubeka was the chief in that year, when he left for Pigeon river. He was then 90 years old. His son succeeded him here (Waubeka) as chief. His son-in-law was a son of Solomon Juneau."

"A small camp was at this time also located on the highlands (Yankee Hill) on the south side of the river near the present stone mill. Here on the John B. Kendall place was the Indian graveyard. Here, beneath a lilac bush, Waubeka is said to have been buried. In later years numbers of Indians frequently returned for the purpose of visiting the grave." (P. J. Mueller.)

In one of the glens at Donges Bay ten miles north of Milwaukee has been erected a statute of an Indian with the legend, "Chief Waubeka looking for his daughter Mequon." He is said to have been the last of the Potawatomi to leave those lands.

In Washington and Dodge Counties

The city of Kewaskum was named for the Potawatomi chief of that name, who died there and was buried in the cemetery south of the city. The Indian rendering of the name is Gee way skum, his tracks are homeward.26 'Kewaskum had a camp (1847-1850) on the east side of Lake Koshkonong, in Town Koshkonong, Jefferson county. This was not a permanent village, but a hunting camp for muskrat trapping and the gathering of wild rice. Their camp was located on the spot where the Hoard hotel stands. They had twenty ponies equipped with saddle-bags made of rush matting interwoven with bark fibre. Another camping place and the one more often occupied by this band was the location known as Black Hawks island on the opposite side of the Rock river. At that camp they cooked and packed muskrat meat in sacks made of rushes for winter use. They had birch bark and dugout canoes.50 The Kewaskum band camped (1842) on the Robe Dow place on Lake Ripley, in Town Oakland, Jefferson county.61 A village of Kewaskum's band was located on Pike lake, near Hartford in Washington county. Jean Baptist e Beaubien had a trading post there in 1824-5. Dr. Thwaites supposes Kewaskum died before 1849.52 Kickapoo, a Potawatomi chief, is buried in Northside park in the city of Kewaskum, in the Indian cemetery.53

The Potawatomi had a village on the southwest side of Beaver Dam lake near Beaver Dam.5"' Edwin Delos Coe, a pioneer on the Rock river, relates of the Potawatomi and Winnebago, that in the winter of 1839-40, about thirty families camped for several weeks opposite his home. They had accumulated otter, beaver, bear, and deer skins when a trader appeared from Watertown and bargained for the entire pack, worth about one hundred dollars, in exchange for four gallons of whiskey.57

There was a Potawatomi village on the east side of Rock river at the site of "Watertown, in Jefferson county.50

In Milwaukee County

The accoimts of the Potawatomi residence at Milwaukee have been so completely recorded by Charles E. Brown35 that it will suffice to set down a resume of the tribal occupation of this important location. They attracted French traders to their village at the mouth of Milwaukee river as early as 1746, and English traders by 176237 and thereafter every season found some trader at this location. There is some evidence that Father Membre (1680) was the first to mention the location.36 Henry E. Legler says the name Milwaukee is of Potawatomi origin, meaning a council place. The chosen site for the council being the hill that formerly occupied the land where the St. Charles hotel stood in 1903. Other meanings of the name have been given as rich soil, beautiful land, or good earth.27

The Pontiac uprising against the English garrisoned forts and posts that met with success in other locations does not appear to have interested the Potawatomi on the Wisconsin shore of the lake, nor the other trihes of the state. The only fort in the state was at Green Bay. It was in command of Lieut. James Gorrell. It was this fort that Pontiac sought to have the natives destroy. He sent out the red wampum belt, and assembled all the tribes far and wide in the region now Wisconsin (1763) at the Potawatomi village on the site of Milwaukee. When the warriors were seated in the council circle the great advocate of Indian independence thus addressed the multitude:

"My Friends! I have come here to consult you in behaflf of our common cause. When the white man came across the ocean, and landed on our shores, he spoke with a sweet and silver-tongued mouth, saying that we had large possessions of land, and that he had none, and asked to be permitted to settle in a corner and live with us like brothers. We received and admitted them as such; and they lived true to their proposition and promise, until they had gained strength. They then commenced to encroach upon us more and more. Their purpose is plain to me, that they will continue to encroach upon us, until they discover that they have sufficient power to remove us, from our country to a distant land, where we will be confronted with all kinds of danger, and perhaps be annihilated. It is now in our power to force the whites back to their original settlements. We must all join in one common cause, and sweep the white men from our country, and then we shall live happy, and we shall have nothing more to do with the hated race. We shall have no unsatisfied desires, as we have an abundance of game in our forests, our rivers and lakes are teeming with all kinds of fish, fowl and wild rice. We shall live as did our forefathers. We shall with our furs and skins obtain all necessary supplies, and be happy."40

There were villages of Potawatomi and Ottawa with some Chippewa and Menominee located at Milwaukee at that time, but only one native, a Menominee, was induced to carry the red wampum belt to Green Bay and he was ignored, as the garrison departed escourted by ninety warriors.41 The Potawatomi of Milwaukee were strongly influenced by the teachings of Pontiac as evidenced by the indifference which the great Indian leader, Captain Charles de Langlade, met on the occasion when he called them in council to incite them to arms for the British (1779).

During the war of the American Revolution, when George Rogers Clark had reached the towns on the Mississippi, and rumors came of his possible attack on Detroit and Michilimackinac, De Peyster, the commandant at the latter, weakly defended post, became alarmed and sought for an Indian contingent to augment his forces.

"De Peyster called a grand council of the tribes to be hefld' at L'Arbe Croche, on the fourth of July, 1779, and sent out runners everywhere to call in the chiefs. Pierre Caree had been sent to Milwaukee to invite the Indians there to join the grand council, and failing of success, Gautier de Verville was sent to induce them to come, but he returned and' reported the Indians had laughed at him. Their chief was Siggenauk, or Black Bird, who gave the British much trouble. De Peyster called them "those runegates of Milwaukee, a horrid set of refractory Indians."

Now de Langlade appeared among them, and his talk having no effect, he concluded to resort to the favorite customs of the Indian. He caused a cabin to be erected with an open door at each end, killed several dogs, had a dog feast prepared, then impaled the raw dog heart on a stick at each door. He invited all to the feast, which they partook of, when de Langlade bounding into the center of their circle, began to sing the war songs in their language, the while passing around the lodge, and each time as he passed the door he bit into the dog's heart, an appeal to the Indian bravery, which was irresistable, and one after another leaped up and joined in the war song and the war dance, until all were following de Langlade, and he led them in triumph to L'Arbre Croche to the great council.

De Peyster wrote a book on his western experiences, part of which was supposed to be verse in which he mentions the incident as follows:

"Those re.negates of Milwakie
Must now perforce with you agree;
Sly Seggenaak and Naskewoin,
Must with Langlade their forces join."

It was also rumored that Colonel Rogers Clark would make his way up the Wabash from Vincennes. Then De Peyster clothed and armed a body of Canadians to march with the Indians to oppose Colonel Clark's movement against Detroit, and to oppose the rumored cavalry of Linctot.

After the council, the Indians, having been persuaded by a lavish distribution of rum and presents to take the warpath, were led by de Langlade with the Canadians south from L Arbre Croche to St. Joseph, a post at the portage from the St. Joseph river, to the Kankakee river, now said tojiave been at

the present city of South Bend, Indiana. Here it was learned that the enemy was not on the march and the war party dissolved. But De Peyster was '' nevertheless persuaded that the noise of assembling, caused Colonel Clark to retire and lay aside his expedition."42

The name of the Potawatomi chief is given as Siggenauk by Dr. Reuben Gold Thwaites, as Seggenaak by De Peyster in the poem and Siginkee by the same author in a letter to Carlton. Simon Kahquados (1917) writes his Indian name as Mah da bena shin.26 His alias was Blackbird and Le Toumeau. Under any or all of these names this Milwaukee Potawatomi chief was a great leader. The atrocities committed under his leadership in the massacre of the women, children and garrison at Fort Dearborn on the site of Chicago will impale his memory in the chamber of horrors forever. Dr. Thwaites writes—

"The Potawatomi band at Milwaukee appears to have originated from a migration from St. Josephs in about 1769. The principal chief was Siggenauk (or Blackbird), termed' Letourneau by the French. He visited Clark at Kaskaskia soon after its capture, and entered into alliance with the Americans, hence this disparagement by De Reyster. Siggenauk took part in the Spanish expedition of 1781, and thereafter appears to have been hostile to the Americans, participating in the several Indian wars and signing Wayne's treaty (1795). Before the war of 1812—15 he resided' in the Peoria region, and was the chief actor in the Chicago massacre of 1812. He died probably about 1815. De Peyster attempted to secure his person in the autumn of the year 1779, but the pilan failed."" Siggenauk was at Milwaukee in May 1777 for at that time Laurent Ducharme wrote to Major Arent S. De Peyster British commandant at Michilimackinac, from Milwaukee, "that the chief Siginakee or Letourneau" had "received a parole from the Spanish to raise all the Indians between the Mississippi and' Little Detroit (Island) of La Baye.""

News was brought to De Peyster in May 1779 that the Virginians (Americans) were building boats near Milwaukee. That they had sent belts, which were accepted, requesting the Indians to remain at Grand river until the Americans had captured Port Michilimackinac and delivered it into the hands of the French, "and that Siggenake, the disafected Milwaukee chief, was to lead the first division."46 He must have moved from Milwaukee before 1785 as Captain Augustin Grignon has no recollection of him, though he recalls Onou ge sa, who is sometimes mistaken for the older chief.47 Antoine Le Claire writes that in 1800 Siggenauk was not known in Milwaukee. Robert Dickson, British Indian agent, says in his "concatenation of events," by which he shows thirty-four evidences of the "hostile intentions of the Potawatomi" to the British in March 1814, that Leturneau "informed me that four of their chiefs during the summer gave information to the enemy (Americans) of all our motions, and for this service were loaded with presents."45

The Potawatomi chief Naskewoin has no other claim to fame except the one reference in the poem of De Peyster where he lifts-him into distinguished company beside "sly Seggenaak and Naokewoin,'' from which thus far he has been lost to history. As he stood by America when she needed a friend we should know more of this voice of hope in the far west.

Onautissah, or Silver Band or the Flower, had his village located near the old mouth of Milwaukee river on a long narrow strip of land that lay between the lake and river. The tract where the village was located is now Jones Island. These Potawatomi varied in numbers at times from 200 to 500. There were a few Chippewa domiciled with them. The lodges were formed of matting and bark. This is supposed to be the village where de Langlade sung his war song (1779). The tribesmen subsisted on sturgeon, trout, white fish, game and wild rice. The name is also rendered incorrectly Onaugesa. The late Mr. Daniel W. Fowler published an account of him in the Milwaukee Sentinel. O-nou-tis-sah was head chief and so called King of the Potawatomi. His father was Che-ko-tau The Leader, of mixed Potawatomi and Menominie blood. He lived at Milwaukee all his life until when a feeble old man of 88 he was forcibly removed to Council Bluffs, (1838) where he died soon after. He spoke fair English and French and waged no wars. He was six feet tall, dignified in deportment and temperate. His wife was a Potawatomi. The royal mansion was a two room bark wigwam and stood at the intersection of Biddle and Cass streets in the Seventh ward. In later years he furnished his lodge with a four post bedstead and several chairs. The large silver medal he wore was received from his father who had it from the United States at the close of the Revolution. At his death at Council Bluffs the medal fell to Louis Yieau in Kansas. Matchesepe, his brother, was his councilor, with a wigwam near by. They were both Catholics. Both were temperate. Matchesepe died of paralysis while attending a council in Mukwonago (1837).35

A fellow chieftain, O-tow-we-yo, Yellow Body, was the only knoAvn Potawatomi chief to be buried in Milwaukee. He was interred (1836) in the native burial ground now in the pres ent Fifth ward. See-boi-a-sem, Cornstalk, was chief of the Mukwonago band of Potawatomi and died there (1833). 0tow-we-yo had married his daughter.

Kow-o-sett, son and successor of O-nou-tis-sah, was chief when the whites came. He died at Theresa, Dodge county (August 1847). Those were spirited thrilling scenes that took place in old Milwaukee when all the bands came in from their hunt with furs, and the native games were set, such as dances and shooting with bow and arrow. At such times pony running races occurred. Without a saddle the riders performed all those dare devil stunts the wild men of the plains could not equal. The Potawatomi village on Spring street flat on the west side of the Milwaukee river, opposite Solomon Juneau's Spring street location was presided over by Ke-noz-hav-kum (also spelled Kenshy-kum) Lake Pickerel. There were 100 Indians in the village (1841) with permanent wattle work lodges. The Potawatomi village or Lime ridge band was on the bluff along present Clybourn street near Twenty-fourth street in the Sixteenth ward. It was in 1835 the largest Indian village in Milwaukee with 250 bark lodges and as late as 1841 harbored 100 natives. The chief of this extensive village was Poh-quay-gee-gun, Bread. The Potawatomi village situated on Walkers point, site of Sixth and National Avenues, on the south side of Milwaukee was ruled over by Pauschke-nana, the Kuptured, a short thick set ugly looking and vicious Indian much feared by the band as a medicine man and sorcerer. His nose had been broken and a piece of lead inserted to hold it in place. He died about 1830. Many years before (1795) his grandfather was head chief of the village. His band were known as the "Walkers Point rogues," as they were lazy, and devoted most of their time to sport, pony running, playing lacrosse, gambling and debauchery. The village in summer contained as many as twelve hundred people. The village location of the Potawatomi chief Pal-mai-pot-toke, The Runner, (1823) was between Walkers point and the Menominee river. Osee-bwai-sum (also spelled See-boi-a-sem), Cornstalk, was chief of the village of 200 Potawatomi on the Kinniekinnie river on what is now Layton Park formerly known as Indian Fields.121 He took his band to Mukwonago where he died, 1883. Pemona or Peshano was a petty chief of a Kinnickinnic river band of Potawatomi. He afterward joined Cornstalk at Mukwonago. There were Potawatomi villages near Forest Home cemetery, at the intersection of Muskego and Forest Home avenues. The Potawatomi were collected by Jacques Vieau at the Indian fields near the Layton House in 1838, by authority of the treaty of Chicago, 1833, where they were fed until teams and supplies could be collected for the long overland journey to Council Bluffs, Iowa. Potawatomi villages were also located in present Wauwatosa. The Potawatomi visited the city of Milwaukee in numbers as late as 1880. The city and county of Milwaukee has been a rich field for the archeologist as thousands of artifacts have been found, and 217 mounds and numerous cornfields and village sites described.35

A scourge of smallpox ran through the Indians of the state in 1832-3. At Milwaukee, Jacques Vieau, stationed there as a trader, was busy most of the winter burying the natives. "With a crooked stick inserted under a dead Indians chin they would haul the infected corpse into a shallow pit and give it a hasty burial."

Antoine Le Claire, a trader at Milwaukee, writes that the Indians at Milwaukee (1800) cultivated about five acres of corn to each family which was rudely fenced from their ponies. They grew sweet corn, pumpkins, beans, melons and potatoes. They had neither cows nor hogs. They used no plow, but hoed the ground. The wild game there was deer, bear and muskrat. There was no elk or buffalo.38 Andrew J. Vieau says, "Indian ponies grazed (1834) in great droves on the Juneau march. The Indian corn fields were on Spring street."39 A personal recollection of Mr. Charles E. Brown to the author, says, "The Potawatomi were the first Wisconsin Indians whom I knew as a boy. My father's house, there, in the eighties, stood on 17th street near Grand Avenue, and the Potawatomi families on their way northward crossing the Menominee river at 26th street came along the river bluffs to our house. They ofter. stopped for tea and food and then went on their way. I remember their sitting in a row all along the kitchen wall. Mother was made godmother to quite a few of their children which of course always required a gift from her to them. Our house was a large one with long windows reaching nearly to the base of a large porch which encompassed two sides. I frequently watched them coming down the bluffs thru these oldfashioned windows. They were all good people and grateful for the hospitality shown them. We saw them in the spring and autumn."

Waukesha County

The city and county of Waukesha derive their names from the Potawatomi word for fox. The Indian render it Waugoshikag, the place of the foxes.27 Andrew E. Elmore, in an interview furnished to Miss Deborah Beaumont Martin, says that when he first arrived at Mukwonago (1839) it was known as the "Potawatomi capital." To carry on trade with them he learned their language. They traded with him for twenty years. After their removal to Iowa some of them returned to his store with their furs.63 The village of Waubekeetschuk, a Potawatomi chief, was located at Mukwonago.64 In early settlement days there was a Potawatomi camp on Mrs. L. Burte 's place on Railroad bay on the south shore of Okauchee lake.85 A Potawatomi village was located for a mile along the bluffs south of Carroll college in Waukesha (1827). Chief Leatherstrap and wife were buried in the grounds of what is now Cutler's park in the city.64

Stanley Q. Haskins says that the Potawatomi villages at Mukwanago and Waukesha were visited by the trader Jacques Vieau in 1804-5. In the year 1827, Ebenezer Childs found the Potawatomi village at Waukesha to be capable of putting into the field the large number of 400 warriors. The village must thus have contained about 2000 inhabitants. The village, or camps, at Pewaukee lake were composed of several hundred Indians. The Winnebago had at that time been endeavoring to persuade the Waukesha Potawatomi to join them in taking the warpath against the whites. The warriors were in a restless, if not ugly mood. About the year 1827, Amable Vieau, acting as agent for his father Jacques, established a trading post at the Waukesha village. He remained for about two years, visiting during this period other villages and camps of that tribe in the county. He furnished the Indians with ammunition, calico, beads and tobacco. Other traders also sent agents from as far away as Green Bay and Prairie du Chien, among the Indians for their peltries. The testimony of all of the early settlers of Waukesha county is to the effect that the Potawatomi were very peaceable Indians. The surface of Waukesha county is composed of prairies, oak openings, small marshes, almost innumerable lakes and small hills. There are also a large number of fine springs. Of the lakes Pewaukee is the second largest as well as one of the most beautiful. Its banks are high and were formerly well timbered. The name of the lake is said to be a corruption of the Potawatomi name Pee wauk ee win ick, meaning "the dusty place." Everywhere through the county fish and game were abundant. Wild rice grew in some of the streams and lakes, and nuts and berries could be gathered in quantity. Materials for the making of stone implements were at hand. Its natural resources continued to attract the Indian to Waukesha county for thirty years after its cession to the government (1833) and settlement by the whites. The Potawatomi of Waukesha county are thus described:

"None of these Indians were permanently located. During the season of corn planting' their women and children occupied the higher iands among the lakes and rivers throughout the country, and pursued their primitive methods of agricuilture, while the adult males spent the time in hunting, fishing and lounging about the camp. The frame-work of their habitations was made of poles, and this was converted into a hut by means of a covering of skins or strips of bark. The village at Waukesha was permanent until 1837, except during the winters, when its inhabitants moved southward. These Indians buried' their dead in shallow graves, the body being frequently first wrapped in a blanket. "Various articles belonging to the deceased were placed in the grave, which was covered with stones or brush. Burials were also made, it is stated, directly on the ground, or in trees."

In the early days of settlement the Potawatomi Indians occasionally camped on the farm of Mr. H. Ilolger (N. W.1/^ Sec. 5). The Potawatomi Indians had a camp on the south shore of Pewaukee Lake, in about the place where the Tisehaefer hotel now stands. On the farm of Mr. William Chapman (S.a/2 S. W.]/i Sec. 17), at a distance of about 200 rods east of his house, is the site of another early Potawatomi camp Mr. Passault, an old settler of Pewaukee, remembers the camp at this place, which had about 35 occupants. They subsisted largely on the prairie chickens, which Mere abundant in the marshland near by. Mr. Thomas Connor, an old settler, states that during; pioneer days a camp at Potawatomi was for several years located at the place now known as Belleview, on the south shore of Pewaukee Lake. (Fract. Sec. 18). The number of Indians in this camp he remembers to have been about seventy. Miss Mary E. Stewart .states that in her girlhood a considerable number of Potawatomi Indians camped on their farm in the S. W.% Sec. 22.66

There was a Potawatomi village at Muskego creek between Little and Big Muskego lakes. Here were cornfields and provision pits and a cemetery that belonged to the band. The Potawatomi of the Kansas reservation bury their dead by laying the body on the surface of the ground and covering it with a mound. The graves of this tribe on the east shore of Big Muskego lake were covered with stones. At Denoon lake there was a Potawatomi village.07 A Potawatomi camp was also situated in early settlement days on the narrow neck of land between the Nemahbin lakes (N.1/. Sec. 24) and a sugar camp on Sugar or Dog Island in Lower Nemahbin. Another camp of the same tribe was located on the north side of the outlet of Lake Nagawicka (Sec. 17). In early settlement days the whites saw many Potawatomi camps on the banks oi the Fox river in Town Vernon.68

The Indian land cession maps of the Bureau of Ethnology show an Indian village "Maquanago," at about the location of the present city of that name.118

Racine County

Racine is a French rendering of the English word root. From the river of that name is taken both the name for the city and county. The name Root river is derived from the Potawatomi Che pe kat aw sebe meaning Root river, also rendered Chippecotton or Sehipieoten."7 There was a Potawatomi village at Skunk Grove. It was removed in 1837.49 There was a Potawatomi village in Town Burlington 1828 and 1836.r'4

Mr. Smith, one of the early settlers of Caledonia, says that prairie wolves and Potawatomi Indians were equally abundant. That during the winter there were three encampments of Indians uncomfortably near this house. The Raymond settlement was not far distant from Jambeau's trading post, and it is said that the Indians with their thieving propensities and meddlesome disposition annoyed the settlers.48

Walworth and Rock Counties

The Potawatomi chief Gros Pied, Big Foot, had his village (1836) at the head of Lake Geneva and on the north side of the lake at Williams Bay. His people cultivated corn their corn hills being visible as late as 1840. The stump of Big Foots flag pole was standing many years later. The band removed soon after 1836. A few members occasionally returned to fish and hunt. In the spring of 1836 a Potawatomi band made a thousand pounds of maple sugar in the maple woods on Sugar creek in La Fayette township. The same summer another band made their -home in Spring Prairie and raised two acres of corn. They had two dozen ponies with them.59 There was a Potawatomi camp on the John Weldon place on the southwest shore of Lake'Beulah.60 A deep worn trail led from Big Foot's village at Williams Bay on Lake Geneva (1833) across Elkhorn and Spring Prairies to Mukwonago.62

The village of Maunk-suck or Big Foot was located on the northwest shore of Big Foot, now Geneva Lake, over-looking that beautiful inland lake. It was a collection of neat lodges with surrounding gardens. — Big Foot was a large raw-boned, ugly Indian with a face bloated by intemperance, and "with a sinister unpleasant expression.'' His head was adorned with a gay colored handkerchief. It was to this chief that Dr. Walcott, the United States Indian agent to the Potawatomi, at Chicago, dispatched Shaubena, Billy Caldwell and Alexander Robinson, Potawatomi chiefs, to use their utmost endeavors to prevent his joining with the Winnebago in their disturbance in 1827. It was with difficulty they succeeded in their mission and thus doubtless saved many lives. Mrs. John Kinzie and party passed the village and rested there in the summer of 1832 and in Waubun she describes it.

Hon. W. C. Whitfood's map of Milton township, Rock county (1900) locates a Potawatomi village on Otter creek, (S. E.1^ Sec. 12 and N. E.1,4 Sec. 13).61

Winnebago County

There was a •Potawatomi village in settlement days at Potawatomi point, one mile south of the village of Winneconne.58 v Simon Kahquados says:

"One our old village at Black Wolf (seven miles south Oshkosh) and one our principal villages at Waukau, Winnebago County. One our principal village Kewaskum, Washington County, and one our big principal village a few miles south of Pond du Lac, we call Big marsh, (Horicon marsh) in Fond du Lac county. Our old village Elkhart, Sheboygan county. Oh we had hundred's, hundreds villages in Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan. 2000 Potawatomi died in last 55 years. We are orifly a small band. My Indians scattered all over Wisconsin, Michigan, Canada and Kansas. Our trail from the Lake Michigan shore towns Door, Kewaunee, Manitowoc, Sheboygan, Washington, Milwaukee counties was to Horicon marsh, Black Wolf, Waukau, beginning 55 years ago (1863). Then to Little Wolf river about fifteen miles northwest of Northport, Waupaca county, where we lived' ten years.12 Then Wittenburg in Shawano county where we remained fifteen years. Removed then to a village eight miles northwest of Gillett, in Oconto county, where' they remained until taken to the Reservation provided by the United States in Forest county (1914). Another part of the band traveled farther north to Bark river, Michigan, where the United States provided' lands (1914). This land was all purchased with funds due the Potawatomi. The band of Potawatomi living in village at Skunk Hill, Wood county, had returned from Kansas."*

Customs

The following information was furnished by Simon Kaquados to Dr. Alphonse Gerend:

"Lake shore bands Potawatomi smoked tobacco made of a plant growing on sand dunes.25 Dried' it and kept it stored in baskets of Basswood bark. Their name for it was ah-say-mah-ba-mah, big tobacco. Their fish nets were made of basswood bark cord with stones attached to keep it property suspended. Spears had long handles, with stone points and deer horn points. Speared sturgeon both at night and in the day time. Canoes were made of pine dug out, or fashioned of birch bark. 'With these they fished all night with net, and shot fish in day time. The kinds of fish secured were trout, white fish and' sturgeon. In spring time, the middle of May, sturgeon came to shore. The fish were smoked and stored in summer, smoked on frame over fire for two hours. They had a fish dam at Sheboygan where they caught pike, pickerel and suckers in the spring. At night nets were in use at the dam to take the fish. They had no iron spears. Their fish hooks were made of barbed' deer bones. Caught pike, pickerel and bullhead with these hooks. When at Elkhart Lakes they fished in winter time. We hunted deer at night along Onion river. (A tributary to Sheboygan river, in Sheboygan County). For night hunting we made pine pitch and ced'ar candles (torches). By use of big torches hunted deer at night with canoe. Torches on bow of canoe. By the light we could get within twenty feet of deer. There were many elk at Elkhart Lake, Sheboygan County. Lard, coon grease, bear grease were saved in deer gut. We smoked venison and dried it covering it with bark in a pit to keep it from prowling animals and to store it for use in time of need. Buckskin was prepared by placing the hides in hot water to remove the hair, which could then be scraped off. Deer brains were rubbed over it to soften it. When no brains could be had, fish oil was used. The skin was hung a few days in smoke. We hunted bear in winter, when they were asleep, with dogs. The dog found the hiding place of the bear, woke the animal by barking, and we came up and killed him with tomahawks. The wild' dog or wolf was killed as food for the chiefs to make them brave. We also made dead' falls for game. We cultivated our garden with stone hoes and' wooden shovels. In our gardens we raised squashes, pumpkins, beans, potatoes, wild corn and onions. We pounded corn into a corn meal in a wooden dish with a round stick four foot long. Among the many ways of preparing corn to eat, we made corn soup, of bear and deer meat. We preserved wild apples, plums and raspberries and cranberries in birch bark vessels, and vessels made of deer stomachs held in shape by sticks and kept in ground. ^For pottery making, pure clay was selected and worked over and mixed a long time. One month well mixed. It was mixed in hollowed log. For the form a bowl was burned into a log and the clay pressed about the sides. Half of the ware was removed, then the other half and' the two joined. Pot sometimes formed on outside of mould. Baskets were made of elm and hickory bark. Bags to hold fish were made of cedar and basswood bark. Cloth was made of bear and elk hair and' a grass that grows on the prairie. There was a grass growing at Lake Koshkonong, in Rock river that was adapted for making cloth. The squaws gathered it. They made blankets and mats with it. Often fifty ponies would start out to get grass. Other Indians started war because Potawatomi got grass when we went buffalo hunting. Blankets were made of elk hide (buckskin). Black and red paint was made by boiling stone we found' at Little Sturgeon Bay point. Our wigwams were made of the bark of elm, hickory and black ash trees. Over grave, drive post in ground at head of grave with figure of bear painted or cut, so anybody can tell Potawatomi. Post five inches across, three feet high. Cedar cabin over grave to keep animals from body. The bear is the token of the band. War council pipe was smoked when Indian had a trial. Only chiefs had pipes, and smoked only at important events."26

To the author he furnished this additional data: The medicine dance is held at the time of blossoms, in April or May, near the principal camp, of the Potawatomi band. All of the men, women and children take part. It commences at dark and continues all that night and the next. day. Each one carries a medicine pouch made of fur. The dance is accompanied by singing and drums. The constantly reiterated prayer is "Give us long life." The dance is led by eight old men, or six old men and two old women. The leaders are showered with presents.

The eight day pow wow is a dance by men only. The women sit about and sing. The dance is not continuous. It is conducted for a few hours each day, and an hour or two in the evening. Its purpose is thanksgiving for good harvest, and is conducted in May by the Wisconsin Potawatomi at Skunk Hill in Wood county, the bands assembling from all parts for the dance.

In the case of murder of a Potawatomi by one of another tribe, the Indian law compells the offending tribe to bring: the murderer bound to a council of the Potawatomi. Then a talk is commenced to buy the life of the murderer by an offer of ponies, whiskey and bows. If no bargain can be concluded the Potawatomi hit the victim on.the head and kill him. If the offending tribe are able to meet the demands and pay for the life of their tribesman he can go free, but with notice to remain out of their tribal territory. This was the custom among all the tribes before the advent of the white man's laws.

The Potawatomi drum used in the pow wow and medicine dances is made of a cedar block hollowed out to a thin shell. The block is two feet long and one foot in diameter. The heads were made by stretching raw deer skin over the ends to dry. There were two blue rings around the center of drum barrel, and the lower half was painted red for the Medicine dance.

The drum for the ghost dance is two feet in diameter and six inches thick, made of an elm hoop. The rawhide deerskin stretched over the heads and dried is painted half black and half red. The red is the symbol of the Potawatomi command to keep the sacred fires burning.

Bodies were wrapped in bark and laid in trees by the Potawatomi many years ago to save them from the wolves. At that time the wolves were so numerous they would desecrate the graves in spite of all the precautions of the tribe. After +he wolves'had been mostly destroyed the bodies were placed in graves, and a small house made of elm bark was raised over the grave.

For a child a post set at the head of the grave has a ball on the top that counts for one year of age. When older bars were cut across the post for each year up to six. When the burial is for one older than six years, then a bear is"carved on the post and each notch cut in counts ten years. Half dents five years.

Bodies are buried with the head to the west, as at the resurrection they hope to rise facing the east.

The ghost dance is the Potawatomi wabano dance, meaning East and West dance. The dance is a mourning dance in memoriam for the loss of a wife, mother, brother or relative. It is held one year after a death, at which time some one is selected to take the place of the deceased. The one thus selected is given a pony or other presents because of accepting the position, and in the dance the substitute selected dances just in advance of the chief mourner. It is a short dance held in the evening, participated in by all the men and women of the band, dressed in black with faces painted red. The whole band sing and the drum is beaten during the dance.

The Potawatomi marriage is a simple affair. Neither the boy or girl have any choice or voice in the engagement or marriage. The father of the son takes a bow, arrows and pipe to the girl's father and proposes the marriage. If the offer is approved, a big dinner is prepared next day by the girl's people to which the band is invited! That completes the marriage. The boy goes to the girl's wigwam to live thereafter. After the birth of the second child they make their own wigwam.

Formerly the Potawatomi men wore rings in the nose and had ear rings. •

For signs to save being lost in the deep forest the Potawatomi notice the trees all lean to the east, and the east side of trees have the most limbs. The moss on the trees is on the north side. By these signs the traveler knows the directions and is never lost in the woods.

Fish nets were made of bark cord. They were hoop nets, cigar shape about four feet in diameter, and fourteen feet long. After fish run up river in the spring to spawn, the Potawatomi made a dam in river to keep them from- escaping, and netted them. The whole band were engaged for about ten days in catching and smoking fish.

White fish were speared off the shore of Lake Michigan by clay and by torch light at night. Torches were set up on the bows of the boats.

Bows were four and five feet long, made of hickory or white elm felled by burning a sapling off at base. Then burning the top off the stump to correct the length. The pole obtained in this manner was then rubbed down to proper shape by means of stone scrapers. It required an entire month to fashion the bow. On the advent of white men's artifacts the work was much less laborious. The arrow shafts were fashioned by similar processes. The string used was made from the tough hide of a five year old buck.

Candles were made of dry cedar bark stuck in an alder stem, into which hot deer and moose tallow were poured. When cold it was drawn out and set aside for use as candles. The candle holder was a fork of a limb in which the candle was set to keep it in an upright position when lighted. Flambeaus used in hunting and fishing and for light outside of the cabin were pine knots.

The corn mill was made out of a wooden block about four feet long, into the side of which a hole was burned about eighteen inches deep. In this bowl the corn was pounded into meal with a thick four foot pestle.

The "Sky Eagle Feather" flag was endowed with wonderful magic power. The Wisconsin Potawatomi have this flag which has reposed with the band for over three hundred years. When undertaking a voyage over the lake they ask the manitou to stay the storms and rains until the end. The leading boat has the flag on the bow. In the presence of the sacred flag all storms stop and enemies melt away.

The birch bark canoe was about twenty-five to thirty feet long and about five feet wide. The frame was of cedar. It is held together with root strings found along the Lake Michigan shore. The pitch used is made from pine, and is obtained by barking a spot on a tree with stone axes out of which pitch exudes.

The pumpkins and squash were cut open, cleaned of seeds and the shell was smoked. In this way they were preserved for winter use.

The smoked fish or venison was buried in caches, kept cool by running water below.

The corn, beans and peas were preserved in a mocuck (box) made of elm bark and buried in the ground.

Fish gut and heads are boiled to obtain fish oil.

The Potawatomi count the years by winters only, not by summers.

The years were divided into twelve months by the moon. The new year starts with first run of fish up river. These are red horse and suckers. This is also maple sugar time. This period corresponds to the middle of April, named Se-ce-bahko-to-ga kisis. The last syllable means month.

Middle May is named Wah-be-go-ni-gi kisis, the blossom month. It is the time the sturgeon begin to run up river for spawning.

June first, named Ki-di-ge-gi kisis, is the planting season.

July, named Mis-ko-mi-ni-gi kisis, the time to pick raspberries.

August, named Ah-tah-dah-gah-go-mi-rni kisis. The month to pick blackberries.

September, named Wah-da-bah-gah kisis. The month to gather wild apples, plums and nuts, and pick cranberries.

October, named Nah-ma-ko-se kisis. The harvest month, to gather potatoes, squash, beans, peas, pumpkins, melons, corn and onions. The lake trout come near shore at this time and are speared in quantity.

November named Keo-say kisis, hunting month. All men, women and children leave for the hunting grounds. Only old men and women are left in the village. The game sought was deer, bear, coon, turkey, prairie chickens, ducks and geese.

December, named Oni-ege kisis, or trapping month. The game caught was wildcat, wolf, otter, badger and mink.

January, named Ma-ko-ki kisis, big bear month. The band returned from trapping and remained close indoors during the cold weather.

February, named Ma-ko kisis, or little bear month. So named as baby bear were born in that month. During the month the band remains indoors. The last part of month they begin praying for good medicine for a good sugar yield. They also have a medicine dance and begin to get ready for the sugar season.

March, named Se-ce-bah-ko-to-ga kisis, the maple sugar month.- . The Potawatomi speared sucker through the ice along the lake front during this month.122

Around the Lake

"The Potawatomi were for a long period a power" on the prairies of Illinois and were among the most energetic and powerful of the Indian tribes of the northwest," fighting with "savage ferocity in all the wars along the border." "They were the last native tribe to take their departure from Illinois." "They originally fought their way in along the shore of Lake Michigan, and then, battling constantly, drove back the struggling Kickapoos beyond the Sangamon" river in central Illinois, and forced the fierce Fox and Sauk over the Bock river, while they annexed and held all the territory to the St. Joseph river in Michigan and later a great portion of Indiana and all southern Michigan. On the early French maps the principal village was at the mouth of the St. Joseph river where for fifty years the priest missionary labored with them. This movement south by the Potawatomi bands was begun as early as 1680-1690, very soon after La Salle had abandoned Fort St. Louis, a site afterward known as Starved Eock, on the Illinois. By 1712 to 1720 the Miami had been forced onto the Wabash by the Potawatomi. The Potawatomi then founded their village on the St. Joseph of Lake Michigan.14 They are reported in 1736 with a village on the St. Joseph river composed of one hundred warriors, declaring themselves the governor's eldest sons. "The principal bands had for a totem the golden carp, the frog, the crab, the tor toise."74 The Handbook of American Indians, under the title "Missions" records: "The mission of St. Joseph on the river of that name, near the present South Bend, Indiana, was established by Allouez among the Potawatomi in 1686," a statement if correct that finds the Potawatomi on that river at an early day almost contemporaneous with their discovery in Wisconsin.

July 16, 1742, the chiefs of the Potawatomi of St. Joseph river attended the council of all northwest nations at Montreal, held by Marquis de Beauharnois, governor general of New France. Chiefs of the Potawatomi present were Pilemou, Thichaakane and Oquiyaouy. They requested a blacksmith who was not to divide his wages with others, to allow him to make his charge reasonable. They also denied stories that they had killed Frenchmen. De Beauharnois in his reply promised them the blacksmith ordered to work at cheap rates and that he had "never heard that the Potawatomi were accused of having killed Frenchmen.'' They were given '' milk (rum), tobacco and presents of collars, and advised not to go to the English, "which spoils your hearts and your minds, and prevents you from paying your debts." He sent the same gifts to Ouilamec, Memidokay and Ouasado, chiefs not present. To Pilemou and Thichaakane were given each a medal and to Oquiyaouy a gorget, "on account of distinction conferred upon you."75

In 1748-50 Sieur de Repentigny was in command of the fort on the St. Joseph river. A council was held in Montreal (1750) with the Potawatomi and Sauk of the river St. Jo:eph.7'5 Aug. 22, 1730 Charles Michel Mesaiger was missionary at the river St. Joseph. Jean Baptiste de la Morinie, who came to Canada in 1736, served two years at Detroit, then at the mission of St. Ignace at Mackinac for eleven years, Mas in 1752 located on the St. Joseph river among the Potawatomi where he ministered to that nation for eight years.77 Mashoguise was Potawatomi chief at St. Joseph, at the time of Pontiae's siege of Detroit. In the years 1757 to 1759 Fort St. Joseph was in command of Captain. Louis le Verrier, and described as "situated on the right bank of the river at twenty leagues (50 miles) from its entrance into the lake." "The savages who came there to trade are the Potawatomi about four hundred men and a few Miami." Four hundred packages of the skins of cats, bears, lynx, otter, deer and stags were shipped from there.78 Reports made in 1769, place the Potawatomi on the St. Joheph river and another band on the Illinois river, accustomed to go to St. Louis "to get presents from the Spanish."80 During the Revolution the fort at St. Joseph river was on the east side of the river, a short distance below the site of South Bend, Indiana, and the Potawatomi village of the same name was located opposite the fort, on the west side of the river and on the portage trail to the Kankakee. The Fort St. Joseph changed hands several times during the Revolution. On one occasion the Spanish from St. Louis assisted the French, Americans and Potawatomi to take and hold it a few hours on which Spain entered a claim at the treaty table to the country of the Ohio valley. There were Potawatomi villages of Terre Coupee and Petit Coeur de Cerf on the river at the same period. The Spanish commandant at St. Louis reports the Potawatomi on St. Joseph river (Nov. 15, 1777) composed of 150 warriors" with principal chief Uuan Guise (Oquiyaouy). "This tribe has been well effected to the French but in revolt at present and evilly inclined.70 The Potawatomi village of La Terre Coupee was thirty miles up the St. Joseph river from the entrance to the lake.73 Near this was located the trail ford crossing the river called Para Vacha or Cattle Yard (Cowpens), which was just above the old fort site. The trail from Chicago forked at the ford, one leading to Detroit, the other to Fort Wayne. (1792)

The Potawatomi village located on the river south of Detroit was established at the instance of M. de la Mothe Cadillac (1714).S1 Four years later this village was described as being near the French fort at Detroit.

"Its cabins made of apaquois (mats) made of reeds. All this work is done by the women. This nation is well clothed. The only occupation of the men is to hunt and to adorn themselves. They use a great deal of Vermillion and many buffalo robes, highly ornamented, to cover themselves in winter; and in summer they wear red' or blue cloth. In summer they play a great deal at la crosse, twenty or more on each side. Their bat (crosse) is a sort of small racket, the ball with which they play is of heavy wood and larger than the balls we use in tennis. When they play, they are entirely naked; they have only a breech-clout, and shoes of deer-skin. Their bodies are painted all over with all kinds of colors. There are some who paint their bodies with white clay, applying it to resemble silver lace sewed on all the seams of a coat; and, at a distance, one would take it for silver lace. They play for large sums, and often the prize amounts to more than 800 livres. Often one village plays against another, the Poux againt the Outaouacs or the Hurons, for very considerable prizes. The French frequently take part in these games. The women work in the fields, raising very fine Indian corn, beans, peas, melons and' squashes. In the evening the women and the girls dance. They adorn themselves liberally, grease their hair, put on white chemises, and paint their faces with vermillion, also putting on aill the porcelain beads they possess, so that after their fashion they look very well dressed. They dance to the sound of the drum and of the sisyquoy (rattle), which is a sort of gourd' with pellets of lead inside. There are four or five young men who sing, and keep time by beating the drum and the sysyquoy, while the women dance to the rhythm and do not miss a step. This is a very pretty sight and1 it lasts almost all night. Often the old men dance the medelinne, they look like a band of sorcerers. All this is done at night The young men often dance in the daytime, and strike at the posts; it is in this dance that they recount their exploits. On such occasions they also dance the scout dance. They are always well adorned' when they do this. When this nation goes hunting, which is in autumn, they carry their apaquois with them, in order to make their cabins every evening. All the people go, men, women and children; and they pass the winters in the woods and return in spring.""

The Potawatomi were said to have a village at Detroit (1736) "of 100 men." They have the same device or token as the band on the St. Joseph.74

Louis Antoine Bougainville, in his memoir says (1756)

"The savages who ordinarily come to trade at Detroit are the Hurons, a perfidious knavish tribe whom one must be incessantly on guard'. The Ottawa, Chippewa and the Potawatomi. The Potawatomi are of all the savages the most attached to our interests, never having dipped their hands in the blood of any Frenchmen. They have even given us notice of plots formed' against us by other nations."s3

The same author describes the celebrated foot races, between the Canadians and Indians, in presence of fifteen hundred natives. The course is half a league, on a well made wide road from Detroit to the Patawatomi village. At the period of the revolution and in 1763 there were Potawatomi villages on the Illinois at Peoria, and near Chicago.108

War With the Sauk and Fox

The Iroquois allied to the English and by that sign opposed to the French and their Indian friends, had waged war on the border tribes for years. The Sauk and Fox long war with the French waged in the Fox and Wisconsin valleys, had drawn the Iroquois of the east into an alliance with the Fox and Sauk of the west. Two Iroquois having been captured by the Potawatomi, they cut off their ears.84 Dr. Thwaites says of this time:

"The solitude and quiet of the frontier was disturbed by waring tribes. For many years the Fox and' Sauk -kept the tomahawk in full swing. During all of those days the Potawatomi of the lands now Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan were steadfast friends of the French."

At the time of the cruel attack and slaughter of the Fox, Sauk and Mascouten at Detroit, as preliminary to that battle, a band "of Mascoutens who had wintered at the heads of the St. Joseph river had been cut off to the number of fifty men, women and children, by Saguinaw, a war chief of the Ottawa and Potawatomi." For the attack (1712) on the Fox, Sauk and Mascoutens who had settled near the fort at Detroit the commandant Captain Dubuisson, fearing they would assault the fort, sent messages to the Ottawa, Wyandots (Hurons), Chippewa and Mississaugas to come to his assistance and made ready for battle. Makisabie, war chief of the Potawatomi and ■■--—■ ■■ tt —

his brother Tehamasimon arrived at the head of six hundred of that nation. One morning Dubuisson ascended a bastion:

"And casting my eyes towards the woods, I saw the army of the nations of the south issuing from it. They were the Illinois, Missouris and Osages and other nations yet more remote. There were also with them the Potawatomi, the Ottawa chief, Saguinaw, the Sauk and' some Menominee. Detroit never saw such a collection of people. It is surprising how much all these nations are irritated against the Mascoutens and Outagamie. This army marched in good order, each under its flag, directly to the fort of the Hurons."

The battle raged for three weeks with the usual savage ferocity ending in defeat of the Foxes and Mascoutens. During the battle Makisabie mounted a scaffold in the fort and made a bold speech of defiance.

"Wicked nations that you are, you hope to frighten us by all that red color. Learn that if the earth is covered' with blood, it will be yours."

This same war chief of the Potawatomi was sent to Montreal in the canoe that carried news of the battle.85 'The Fox had captured the son of Ouenameka, a Potawatomi chief and his companion of the St. Joseph river band, while hunting near Chicago. The Fox stopped at the Mascouten village on Fox river of Green Bay in returning to their village. The Mascoutens ransomed the son of the chief and at night untied his companion and let him escape.86

The De Lignery expedition against the Fox tribe in 1728, having arrived in the Fox river valley a Potawatomi appeared as envoy for peace from the Foxes, but having departed with the reply of the French never returned. The Potawatomi of Detroit and St. Joseph attended the great council of the northwest tribes at Montreal in 1728.8T

Battle of the Two Groves

After the Foxes escaped late in the fall 172.; from the two months battle on Dendo island, now in the city of Menasha, on the Fox river of Green Bay, they appeared in the spring of 1730 on the plains of Illinois with the entire tribe, warriors and families treading the long trail to join the Iroquois of New York, by way of the Ouiatanon (Lafayette, Ind.). They were discovered by bands of Potawatomi, Mascouten, Kickapoo and Illinois (July 1730). A fierce battle ensued, in which the Potawatomi war chief Okeia was slain, Pindizaehe was wounded, and there were six killed and three wounded members of the tribe. The Potawatomi posted on a hill, dug trenches and prepared to hold the Poxes while they sent for help. The Potawatomi sent runners to Str Joseph and the Mascouten sent to Fort Chartress. The commandant Monsieur de St. Ange set out with 100 French and 400 Indians on foot and horseback for a march of 240 miles to the scene of the fray on a "march through a wooded country," arriving in one week, August 17. "The Fox fort was a small grove of trees surrounded by a palisade, on a gentle slope rising on the north and northwest side on the bank of a small river" exposed to fire of the French on the east and south sides. Their cabins were very small excavations in the earth. De Villiers, commandant at the fort on St. Joseph river, started for the battle August 10 with all the French in condition to march and 300 Potawatomi, a few Miami and Sauk. There were 200 Potawatomi in the band that sustained the initial 'battle. He arrived on the 20th and was followed the same day by des Noyelles, commandant of the Fort of Miami (Fort Wayne) with 200 Miami, at which time there were gathered about the entrenched Foxes 1400 combatants. The battle raged with slight success on either side for twenty-three days, both sides being so short of food that they lived on their old hides. Finally on September 8, on a "dark cold rainy night of violent storm," "with dreadful thunder" the Foxes escaped, but were discovered by "crying of children." Fear of killing their own people in the darkness held up pursuit until morning. At break of day all set out in pursuit. The women, children and old men marched in advance and the warriors posted themselves in .the rear to protect them.

"Their ranks were broken and defeated, 300 killed and captured." "It is agreed on all sides that not more than 50 or 60 escaped."*3 De Villiers locates the Pox fort "in a small grove of trees, on the bank of a little river running through a vast prairie, more than four leagues (12 mi.) in circumference without a tree, except two groves about 60 arpents from one another."

Battle of Marameek

The Potawatomi, Wyandot and Ottawa of Detroit, sallied out on a war to exterminate the Foxes in the summer of 1732.

They found them on a narrow strip of shore between Lake Marameek (Pistakee, Lake County, Illinois) and a swamp, where they had erected a stockade fort, with an earthen rampart inside, and a watch tower above it, difficult of approach by an enemy. The savages tried to induce the Foxes to come out, intending an ambush, with partial success, killing a Fox woman and four warriors. After another similar failure to take the Foxes unawares, and not being able to injure the fort the assembled Indians held a council, and selected the chief of the Potawatomi as envoy. He entered the fort, and was advised the Foxes were inclined to surrender, but feared for their lives, but agreed to go in the spring to Detroit and make terms of peace with the French commandant. As the fort could not be reduced, the assembled savages withdrew.8' During this year small pox carried off a great number of the Indians, and the Potawatomi of St. Joseph were reported to have become addicted to strong drink, "brandy which they went to get from the English which has contributed to their ruin, by the extraordinary effect of that liquor."

Battle of Des Moines

In the summer of 1734, Sieur de Noyelle led a motley army of habitants and Iroquois from Quebec to Detroit. There were many officers in this party who became famous later in the border wars. At Detroit and St. Joseph the Potawatomi and other savages joined the expedition which in the dead of winter crossed Illinois, and over the Mississippi river to the Des Moines in Iowa, and fought an unsuccessful battle with the Fox, where several French lost their lives. The army was reduced by hunger to eat twelve dogs and a horse and to eat their moccasins. They obtained the promise of the Sauk to induce the Fox to come in the summer and make a treaty. They dragged their weary hungry bodies back across the bleak prairie a sorry representation of the majesty of France on the border.90 It had long been known to the officers and now appeared in the Governor's report that "the other savages did not wish the French to destroy one of their nations." When in the summer of 1737 the Potawatomi, Ottawa, Kickapoo, Menominee and Winnebago appeared in Montreat to ask pardon for the Fox and Sauk, Governor Beauharnois was constrained to acqniess and peace reigned on the border. In closing the annals of the Fox wars Dr. Lyman C. Draper says for them:

"In recording that sanguinary chapter in thei annals of those tribes we cannot but admire their desperate bravery in contending for their homes and loved ones, and' commiserate their sufferings."

When France Lost an Empire

Since Perrot opened trade with the Potawatomi along the shore of Lake Michigan in the region now Door County, Wisconsin, the Indian of the northwest had received the traders goods as presents and in exchange for furs until in a few years the supply from the ranger and coureurs de hois had become a necessity for food, raiment and ornament. Their finery of stone and claws must now include copper and silver, their skin raiment must be of cloth, their bows and arrows changed to powder and gun, their corn planted with an iron hoe, and their wampum currency changed to porcelain beads. Thus for their .own trade with the French of so long standing they were the natural allies to defend the French in this war. Since before 1749 when the French expedition under Celeron planted the plates on the Alleghany and in the Ohio valley, the English had contended, then the American for mastery of that fair land of the northwest between the Ohio, the. lakes and the Mississippi. During the French and Indian war (1752-1760) the Indian tribes of all that region were strongly attached to the French.

By 1751 the Potawatomi had a village on the Chicago river. This band having been joined by a band of Chippewa from Grand Island in the Detroit river, they proceeded to attack the Illinois of le Rocher on the Illinois river. Finding the village deserted, "except for one Frenchman, they ate and drank with him and then killed him" (1751). At this time the post at St. Joseph was in command of Sieur Antoine le Carne. The Potawatomi chief of that village was reported to have, "received from the British a speech, a blue blanket ornamented with porcelain designs and considerable presents to join them, which the chief and band were disposed to do".91 The next year (1752) the intrigues of the English continued in the Ohio valley, and the whole Indian country was ravaged with smallpox. Forty of the Potawatomi died of the dread disease at their Detroit village.

Among that army of breech clouted braves whose exploit under Captain Charles de Langlade in the disastrous defeat, death and rout of Braddock and his British army at Fort Duquesne (1755) has become celebrated, there were a few Potawatomi under their war chiefs Quenamek and Mikisable.42 At this same period the Potawatomi and Miami were ranging the border English settlements and were reported to have "killed or captured 120 English." After the defeat of Braddock the Potawatomi and Chippewa were induced by the French to make peace with the Illinois. Smallpox raged among the Potawatomi at St. Joseph again in 1758, and English "artifices instigated in their midst" has "occasioned much fermentation among the savages of the upper country. This spirit has even spread among the Potawatomi always attached to the French." Intending to kill a Frenchman their purpose was restrained on hearing of the overthrow of Abercrombie's army by Montcalm at Tieonderoga (July 1758).92 When that frightful war was ended and all Canada and New France fell to the English, Sir William Johnson sailed over Lake Erie, and held a great council at Detroit. The Potawatomi from far and wide came to offer their allegiance, together with the other tribes (1761).

In the Pontiac Uprising

The Indian war for liberty under Pontiac swept over the helpless border settler, ranger, officers and soldiers from the Alleghany to the St. Joseph rivers, destroying, burning, massacreing most of the people of eight British outpost forts. It was participated in by all the border tribes. Pontiac was an Ottawa and head chief of the Potawatomi, Ottawa and Chippewa. All the Potawatomi of Detroit participated in the unsuccessful seige of Detroit led by Pontiac in person from May 9 to October 30, 1763. In midsummer a relief vessel bound for the fort was attacked in Detroit river by Wyandot and Potawatomi, killing fifteen of the British force. On May 25 a large party of Potawatomi arrived at the small picket fort of St. Joseph, held by Ensign Sehlosser with fifteen men. The Indians crowded inside the stockade and suddenly fell on the garrison. In less than two minutes they had massacred all but the commandant and three men. They plundered and destroyed the fort. The commandant was carried to Detroit.

"After Porrtiac's final defeat, he fled for refuge to Illinois, and was kiflled by an Indian at Cahokia (1769). This act was laid to that tribe, and greatly angered the Indian nations who for so long had been loyal to the great chieftain. They swarmed down from the north and the east,- eager to avenge his death, and almost annihilated the tribes of the Illinois. Tradition states that a band of these fugitives, seeking to escape the general slaughter, finally took refuse on the summit of that high rock which had been the site for Port St. Louis (le Rocher). There they were besieged by an overwhelming force of Potawatoml, which the great strength of this natural fortress enabled them easily to keep at bay. But hunger and thirst united to defeat them, when the savage foe could not. Their small quantity of provisions quickly failed, and their supply of water was stopped by the enemy severing the cords attached to the vessels with which they elevated it from the river below. Thus surrounded by relentless avengers, they took one last lingering Hook at their beautiful huntinggrounds, spread out like a panorama along the gently rolling river beneath them and then with true Indian fortitude laid themselves down, and expired without a sigh or a tear. Their tragic fate has given to this lofty citadel the name of Starved Rock; many years afterward their bones were seen whitening, on its summit."93

In the Revolution

The northwest tribes were dominated by the English fort at Detroit with from 298 to 564 men (1773-1778), "the place where western Indians were supplied in all their wants and paid for all their furs," and three hundred miles away Fort Pitt under American control without garrison and scarcely sufficient powder "to prime a gun*' upheld the new republic.

Ethan Allen wrote the Indians of the frontier (1775):

"I want to have your warriours come and see me, and help me fight the King's regular troops. You know they stand all close together, rank and file, and my men fight so as Indians do, and I want your warriors to join with me and my warriors like brothers, and ambush the regulars. If you will, I will give you money, blankets, tomahaws, knives, paint and anything that there is in the army just like brothers, and I will go with you into the woods to scout; and my men and your men will sleep together, and eat and drink together, and fight regulars, because they first killed our brothers."

During the war the several tribes were'constantly diverted and amused by alternate visits to the officials at Detroit and at Fort Pitt, receiving speeches and presents at each, then doing as they pleased, though in the end, their knowledge of the friendship for France induced most of the tribes from the Alleghany to the Illinois to adhere to the American side.''4

An order of Lord George Germain dated at Whitehall 1777, to Governor Guy Carleton of Canada, naming the Potawatomi and other Indians, and reciting the recommendation made by Lieut. Governor Hamilton that Indians be employed, says:

"It is his Majesty's resolution that the most vigorous efforts should be made and every means employed that Providence has put into his Majesty's hands, for crushing the rebellion, it is the King's command that you should direct Lieut. Governor Hamilton to assemble as many of the. Indians of his district as he can and' placing proper persons at their head to conduct their parties."1*

It was reported to congress earfly in the war (1776) from Fort Pitt, "that a party of Potawatomi has started to attack the settlements" in Ohio. Fifteen Potawatomi "all either chiefs or their sons" from the village at St. Joseph river arrived at Mackinac (June 13, 1777) and followed De Langlade east where they joined Burgoynes invasion (after July 20, 1777). All the western band's deserted soon after, carrying such loot as they could get off with. When they arrived at Mackinac they were reported "as totally ignorant of bark canoes.05

The British Governor of Detroit, Henry Hamilton, held a council lasting two weeks with the northwest tribes including the Potawatomi at the conclusion (June 17, 1777) of which all consented to go ou the war path for the British to the number of 1000 warriors.97 De Peyster, British commander at Mackinac, writes he had sent a "belt and speech" to St. Joseph and had been advised that the "rebels (Americans) were too firmly fixed in that important post to hazard my belt with any prospect of success." (Sept. 21, 1778)100 The Potawatomi and allied tribes were slowly changing their allegiance to the Americans.

The Potawatomi, Ottawa and Chippewa, May 31, 1779 gave the British assurance of their fidelity, but June 17, 1779 when called to council at Detroit, they openly defied their former ally, threw down the hatchet presented to them and declared they were going to visit their brothers the Virginians and "thereupon the commandant flew into a passion and flung defiance both at the Indians and their rebel allies." A lively recital of these events was made by the Delaware chiefs, tb Colonel Daniel Brodhead at Pittsburgh:

"Brother: The Wyondotts, Chibways, Tawas, Potawatomi and afil those- nations over the I>ake, went after long councilling to their Father the English and told him the following: Father! we have had a gneat council, and have considered of that what you have given us. We, therefore, tell you, we have found' out it is a bad thing which as we will have no longer to do with it; we deliver unto you again (throwing the hatchet down to him.) We now tell you that we are going to our brothers the Virginians, with whom we will make peace and receive that which is good. To which the Commandant rose in a passion, and returned the following answer: Children! "You are welcome to do so, you know that I am not afraid of you. I have fought before now with you and' have conquered, and am able to fight you again, and even both you and the Americans together. I have now a very strong fort built, and soldiers enough and will soon have a great many more."98

When Governor Hamilton set out to capture (1778) Vineennes held by one officer and one soldier that Geo. Rogers Clark had placed in garrison, Wanaquibe chief from St. Joseph with fifteen Potawatomi joined him on the march. There were also fourteen Potawatomi from a neighboring village. After a short march they deserted and returned home. By the following year the tribe had gone over to the Americans.101 The Milwaukee band were reported to have made an alliance with Clark in August 1778.

It was the falling away of the powerful tribe of Potawatomi from the English in the Revolution that made it possible for the Americans to successfully claim the Northwest at the conclusion of the war. With this tribe and their allies united for the English no American could ever have reached the Ohio river, and George Rogers Clark could never have launched his barge on the Ohio.

In the Border Wars

After the war of the Revolution (1783) the territory of the United States extended to the shores of the Great Lakes, but the British continued to maintain a line of fortified posts along Lakes Ontario and Erie and at the connecting water courses of Detroit and Mackinac, refusing to evacuate them, though on the soil of the United States until 1796. During this time, under British influence and pay, Joseph Brant confederated the tribes north of the Ohio river, who were incited against the United States. The historic consequence of which occasioned the bloody border wars up to the terrible battle of Fallen Timbers where General Anthony Wayne subdued the tribes to submission to the Treaty of Greenville (August3, 1795). In this border warfare the confederate nations were the Potawatomi, Ottawa, Chippewa, Miami, Delaware, Cherokee and the Six Nations. Though treaties had been made at Fort Harmer by some of the tribes, the "we of the three fires, never were informed of it. If our uncles the "Wyandot have received presents they kept them to themselves. I have always thought that we the Potawatomi, Ottawa and Chippewa were the true owners of these lands." Thus spake the chief of the Chippewa at the Tceaty of Greeneville, and President George Washington agreed with this view, that these were Indian lands and should be purchased before settlement. In the defeat of Colonel John Hardin, General Harmer and the slaughter of Governor St. Clair's army t;he Potawatomi bore a prominent part. At the Treaty of Greeneville, the Potawatomi chiefs took part and signed. That treaty confirmed the right of the Potawatomi and other Indians to the extent of their domain the rights in the Indian lands: "The Indian tribes who have a right to those lands are quietly to enjoy them, hunting, planting, and dwelling thereon so long as they please, without any molestation from the United States; but when those tribes, or any of them, shall be disposed to sell their lands, or any part of them, they are to be sold only to the United States; and until such sale, the United States will protect all the said Indian tribes in the quiet enjoyment of their lands, against all citizens of the United States, and against ajl other white persons who intrude upon the same." This obligation applied to lands of the Potawatomi.102

Dr. Reubin Gold Thwaites says of this period:

"From the time of the conquest of Canada and New France by the English they had maintained an alliance with the tribes of the region since made into the several! northwest states. After the event of the Independence of the United States the policy was not changed, nor aid the government of the U. S. succeed in winning the friendship of the tribes down to 1830, a half century after the country was taken over. To maintain the friendship of the tribes the English bid high for the fur trade. Every year the chiefs of the Potawatomi, Chippewa, Ottawa, Menominee, Winnebago, Fox and Sauk made the long journey to Maiden, Canada to receive their annual presents."

Tecumseh

Tecumseh, Crouching Panther, was a Shawnee born at Piqua (1768) six miles south of the present city of Springfield, Ohio. His father and two brothers had been killed in border battles with the whites. Together with his brother Tenskwatowa, the prophet, Tecumseh was an ardent opponent of the sale of lands to the white man. They organized a great Indian confederacy with success. When General William Henry Harrison was appointed governor of the Northwest Territory in 1801, with capital at Vincennes, he held a council with the Potawatomi, Kickapoo, Wea, Kaskaskia, Eel River and Piankeshaw tribes (1802). In 1811 the village of Tecumseh was located on the banks of Tippecanoe on land given by the Potawatomi and Kickapoo. On the insolent action of Tecumseh at the council at Vincennes and the threatening aspect of the Indians, General Harrison moved his forces, and brought on the battle of Tippecanoe (Nov. 7, 1811) in which the American forces were successful. The Potawatomi were strong supporters of Tecumseh.

General William Henry Harrison sent Colonel Samuel Wells with a mounted band of Kentucky regulars in September 12, 1811, after the relief of Fort Wayne in the Tecumseh war, to destroy the village of the Potawatomi band under chief Onoxa (or Five Medals) situated on Elkhart river, now in Elkhart County, Indiana. The band had destroyed their own village and decamped before the arrival of the troop of horse. The troop destroyed the standing corn and ravaged the country for some distance. The march of sixty miles had been accomplished and the cavalry returned in four days.10"'

The Tribes Increasing Numbers

Through the years the Potawatomi bands from widely separated points in Wisconsin, Michigan or Indiana had located villages at numerous points in Illinois. There was a village at the Calumet and the Des Plaines portage, the Peoria lake and on the Illinois, as well as on the Rock and Chicago rivers. Several were on the Kankakee, and several villages on the St. Joseph river, one on the Eel river, one at Elkhart, Indiana, on the Wabash, at Detroit, on the Kennomick creek, that was known as the Calumet, east of Chicago. Also at Delawaretown on the right bank of the Miamee river near Fort Defiance. The Potawatomi who helped a soldier over the river to escape in the woods was Tepeeneebee, a chief with village at the mouth of the St. Joseph.

About 1800, a band of nine Potawatomi shot, tomahawked and scalped Mr. Wood, his wife and seven children at their farmstead on Wood river, a small creek that empties into the Mississippi below Alton. A number of other families in the neighborhood were massacred in the same manner. Capt. Samuel Whiteside organized a party of ten frontiersmen, and pursued the murderers about one hundred and fifty miles, killing eight of them.104

In 1804-5, when Captain Whistler with his company of American soldiers arrived at the site of Chicago to construct Fort Dearborn, Captain Thomas G. Anderson, then in trade at Milwaukee, visited the place and took dinner with the commandant in the dilapidated log hut in use before. more spacious barracks were ready. On going to the house the outer door opened into the dining room where the table was spread and family and guests seated. Captain Anderson had not been seated ten minutes when the front door opened and in rushed a host of Potawatomi warriors, hideously painted, scantily dressed, ornamented with feathers, bears claws, deer horns and snake rattles. The ladies ran in a panic leaving the two captains. The war chief walked around the table picking up slices of bread placed at each place which he handed to his young men. A few words to the chief from Captain Anderson disbursed the band.

John Kinzie established trading posts (1804) on Rock river with the Potawatomi and Winnebago, and on the Illinois and Kankakee with the Potawatomi of the prairie.

Shaubena

Shaubena had his village in 1835 on the Bureau river, Bureau County, Illinois, with his band of 142 people. He was tall, straight, of medium size, with broad shoulders and with an intelligent face. He was born in 1776 of Ottawa parents on the Kankakee river in Will County, Illinois. His father had escaped with Pontiac in 1764. He married a daughter of a Potawatomi chief who had a village on the Illinois river a short distance above the entrance of the Fox river, and at his death soon after, Shaubena was made head chief of the band. They abandoned that village a year later and established themselves at Shaubena Grove in De Kalb County, where they wTere found by the early settlers about 1800.

In the summer of 1810 Teeumseh with his party mounted on spirited black ponies arrived at his village. A dog was killed, a feast made and the night spent in songs and dances. Shaubena followed Teeumseh in his visit to many tribes far and wide, arriving home after the battle of Tippecanoe.

In the war of 1812 runners visited many of the Potawatomi bands for the British, but Shaubena did not intend to take part until learning that a large party of warriors from other villages and part of his own band has gone to Chicago to surprise the fort, he took saddle and arrived at Chicago after the massacre. The part he took in saving the family of John Kinzie is told in the story of the massacre. Later in the fall with 22 of his band he arrived at the River Raisin, and as aid to Teeumseh stood by his side when that noted chief was shot by Colonel Johnson, at the famous battle of the Thames. That was his last service for the British.

Black Hawk and the Prophet met most of the chiefs of Potawatomi bands in February 1832 at Indiantown, with slight success. At that time Black Partridge and Senachwine were dead and Shaubena exerted the most influence. If he had favored the union all the Potawatomi would have taken part with Black Hawk. His efforts to spare the settlers is described in story of that war. The Indian agent notified his band in 1836, they must go west. Shaubena lost his right in his old home though it was.his reservation. He died July 10, 1859, about 84 years of age on a small tract of land ■near Seneca, Illinois, secured for him by kind white friends.

Alexander Robinson and Billy Caldwell

In 1831, Alexander Robinson, Cheecheebingway chief of Potawatomi, lived in a log cabin near Fort Dearborn in Chicago. His father was a Scotch trader and his mother an Ottawa. At the Fort Dearborn massacre he tried in vain to prevent the massacre of the troops, but succeeded in carrying off Capt. Heald the commandant and his wife in a canoe, traversing the entire length of Lake Michigan to Mackinac. He prevented his people entering in the Winnebago war against the whites, and in the Black Hawk war he carried his people into active support of the whites. He signed the treaty of Prairie du Chien 1829 and 1834. In 1870 he was living at Aux Plains where he died, April 23, 1872, at 83 years of age. He had an annuity for his services to the United States of $500 after the expulsion of the tribe in 1836. Alexander Robinson and Billy Caldwell were interpreters with Governor Lewis Cass on his four thousand mile canoe journey in 1820.

Billy Caldwell, Sagaunash, lived in a log house in Chicago in 1831. He was a Potawatomi chief born in Canada about 1780, the son of an Irish officer in the British service and a Potawatomi woman. Educated a Catholic he learned to write English and French and was master of several Indian dialects. From 1807 to the battle of the Thames in 1813 he was attached to the British and was secretary to Tecumseh. After the defeat of the British forces at the Thames river he transferred his allegiance to the Americans, taking up his residence at Chicago in 1820. He married a daughter of Neescotnemeg "One of the most famous chiefs of the Potawatomi." In 1827, during the Winnebago war, he was of great service to the Americans.

Massacre at Fort Dearborn

In a letter to Lord Bathurst at London written by a traveler, Mr. T. Tackle (Nov. 24, 1812) says of the use of the Indian in the war of 1812,

"In the present case the Indian incontestably made war on our account and not for themselves.10*

At the beginning of -the war the Potawatomi at their several villages were induced by presents to remain friends of the British.107 The teachings of Pontiac and the border war contest, with the many successes of the Indians and the more recent teachings of Tecumseh and the Prophet, had alienated the Indian from the American a tendency of inclination fanned by the British by speeches and presents. When war was declared the entire northwest tribes were enemies of the United States. The dominant stalwart Potawatomi led the host in enmity. One of the chiefs of this tribe, who led the Indians at the slaughter of Fort Dearborn on the site of Chicago, was Blackbird12'' whose former domicile was at Milwaukee, He had in the Revolution made a treaty with George Rogers Clark, but in later years had led or followed his tribe in their dislike of Americans. Fort Dearborn was a picket fort erected on the west bank of the Chicago river near the lake shore, a far, lonely outpost on the frontier. Its site in the present great city was at the southern approach to Rush Street bridge. The massacre of unspeakable horror occurred a mile and- a half south along the lake shore at the place on Eighteenth street where a monument is now erected. The fort contained four officers and sixty-six men. Captain Nathan Heald was in command. Associated with him was Lieutenant Linus T. Helm, Ensign Ronan, a lad in first service, and Surgeon Van Voorhees. The wives, Mrs. Heald and Mrs. Helm, the later a young bride of seventeen, were present. Of soldiers' wives there were twenty-five women and a number of children.

On August 9, 1812, Winnemeg or Catfish, a friendly Potawatomi chief, brought dispatches from General Hull at Detroit, advising of the declaration of war, and orders to Captain Heald "to evacuate the fort if practical." Against the advice of all, the Captain determined to evacuate the fort, and to proceed to Fort Wayne. Winnemeg sought out John Kinzie and advised against evacuation of the fort as the garrison was well supplied with provisions and ammunition. Before the setting out Black Partridge or Muckatee Benais, a conspicuous Potawatomi chief, came to the commandant and gave up his American medal, as now his young men were resolved to shed white man's blood and he could not restrain them, he would not wear a token of peace.

On August 15 escorted by five hundred Potawatomi the garrison th'eir families and residents had marched along the shore of the lake about one and a half miles when the Potawatomi fell on the doomed band. Some of the party were killed and scalped, some taken prisoners on promise of ransom and whiskey and held at the Potawatomi camp near the fort. The fort was burned. The wounded were murdered.

Black Partridge, Wa-ubansee and Keepotah, Potawatomi chiefs with two others of the band stationed themselves on the porch of John Kinzie's home where the family had reassembled, and with the aid of Sageunash protected them from a band of Potawatomi from the Wabash who arrived too late to obtain any spoils. On the third day after the battle Mr. John Kinzie with family and clerks were taken by boat to St. Joseph on Lake Michigan to the home of Alexander Robinson, a Potawatomi chief, in the band of Topeeneebee. Keepotah was their trusted Potawatomi friend and guide. Lieutenant Helm was carried by friendly Potawatomi to their village- on Au Sable, thence to another village at Peoria. Captain Heald and wife were rescued tiy a Potawatomi of the Kankakee river band and carried to St. Joseph. On arriving at his village on the Kankakee the friendly Potawatomi finding his conduct had excited remarks among his band, started for St. Joseph to reclaim his prisoners. On hearing of this Alexander Robinson and wife took Captain Heald and wife in a bireh bark canoe the length of Lake Michigan three hundred miles to Mackinac and surrendered them to the British. The surviving soldiers with their wives and surviving children were dispersed among villages of the Potawatomi on the Illinois, Wabash, Rock river and at Milwaukee until spring when they were carried to Detroit and ransomed. Black Partridge had his. village on the Au Sable. . Nau non gee was chief of the Calumet village of Potawatomi. Early in the massacre he shot Sergeant Hays, a friend of his. Hays ran the Indian through with the bayonet. Before the Indian died he called his band and enjoined them to be kind to their prisoners, as he deserved his fate for doing ill to a good friend.

The Potawatomi were prominent among the Indian tribes under British command in the two battles of Fort Meigs, the massacre at the river Raisin, the attack on the fort at Sandusky, and with Proctor at the destruction, slaughter and wreck of his army at the battle of the Thames by General Harrison, a disaster that closed the war in the west. (Oct. 5, 1813). Many of the Potawatomi had deserted before Proctor commenced his retreat from Maiden. Shaubena and Billy Caldwell, Potawatomi chiefs, remained with Tecumseh in the battle of the Thames until their friend fell at their side, when they deserted the British and became faithful friends of the Americans everafter.

After the battle of the Thames the Potawatomi made peace with the Americans, and engaged to keep them informed of the movements of the Indians friendly to the British. Captain Robert Dickson writes, the Potawatomi did not arrive at Fort Meigs until two days after the British were there, and "on the attack at Sandusky, the Main Pogue (Potawatomi chief) ascended a tree and called out to his young men that they should not advance until they saw the white flag hoisted, and that then they would rush into the fort," "and when the head chief of the Potawatomi came to Detroit fifteen days after the main body of the British army, he only had four Potawatomi with him and one of them Kee-pou-tah from St. Joseph "a great friend of John H. Kinzie, an American."10"

After the massacre of the garrison of Fort Dearborn, Gov«rnor Ninian Edwards of the Territory of Illinois, secured a number of Potawatomi as hostages for the good behavior of the several bands located in his command. On request being made for their release he wrote Major Thomas Forsyth, Indian agent (May 16, 1814), to insist the "Potawatomi join us in the war and on exhibition of proof that they had struck a blow and have killed our enemies, a number equal to that of the hostages, I shall be in favor of giving them up, but on no other terms." "They shall be well supported with ammunition."109 -The Potawatomi thus had their demands to enter a sanguinary contest from both camps and posterity will do him the justice to declare he faithfully carried out his orders, and the white man of neither camp can discover in using these elements of horror any praise or satisfaction.

Robert Dickson, the British Indian agent during the war of 1912, had information (Feb. 4, 1814) that all forts in Illinois were abandoned except Fort Clark (a new fort) on the site of Peoria, garrisoned with 100 men. "The Potawatomi to the number of thirty families are near the fort and go in and out as they please, leaving their arms at the gate." Senachwine or Nasima or Gommo, head of the Potawatomi band at Peoria lake, died in 1915. His brother Petchaho who succeeded was intrusted by Major Forsyth (May 30, 1815) with carrying the news of peace to all the scattered bands of Potawatomi as far east as Eel river in Indiana, and through Illinois, Wisconsin and up the Mississippi river to all the tribes.11'

Not In the Winnebago War

Moses M. Strong and Wm. R. Smith each in their histories of Wisconsin, assert the Potawatomi were frustrated in their plans to surprise the fort at Chicago during the Winnebago war and to give up their intention to join forces with the Winnebago, by the remarkable canoe journey of Governor Lewis Cass up the Fox and down the Mississippi rivers, and then up the Illinois river to Chicago, starting all the military forces in motion. Also to the efforts of Billy Caldwell, Alexander Robinson and Shaubena, chiefs of Potawatomi bands, especially in their visit to Big Foot's band at Geneva lake is credited with having induced that band and Rock river bands to# remain neutral. The consequences of an alliance between the Winnebago and Potawatomi for war at that time on the frontier is terrible to contemplate.110

During the Black Hawk War

The Prophet, Wapesheka, or Light Cloud (also spelled Waupeshek), who influenced and directed the Black Hawk war was a half blood "Potawatomi. His portrait painted by Sully is hung in the State Historical Museum, of which Draper says "The countenance of the Prophet indicates a malignant lear, which with his dark massive locks, is in perfect keeping with his character."

Black Hawk was misled by Neapope who falsely told him the Potawatomi would join him in his war on the white settlers, but Black Hawk's message to that tribe met with no response. Shaubena, the Potawatomi chief, succeeded in holding the tribe neutral and he himself rode from place to place warning the settlers to flee. About seventy-five friendly Potawatomi joined General Atkinson on Rock river near Dickson eager to get into a fight. They were led by Alexander Robinson, their chief. Nine young men of the Potawatomi joined Gen.. Atkinson as scouts.

Learning of Black Hawk's approach, Shaubena sent his son Pypagee and Pyps, his nephew, to Fox river and Holdmans Grove while he hastened to warn the settlers on Bureau and Indian creeks. On that bright morning they were busy seeding, not thinking of danger, when Shaubena was seen riding at full speed, without gun or blanket, his long hair streaming in the wind, his pony covered with foam, calling to the people to flee for their lives. He warned the families of Hall, Pettigrew and Davis at Indian Creek and they fled to Ottawa fourteen miles aivay. Davis appeared and insisted they all return to their homes which they did. Just as they arrived they were attacked by about 100 Potawatomi led by Mike Girty and all murdered, except the -two Hall girls and their brother. Shaubena hurried on and warned the people at Kelloggs Grove and Holdmans and they escaped though their homes were sacked and burned.111

Treaties and Cessions

The treaty of Jan. 9, 1789 at Fort Harmer, Ohio, was never effective because of the hostilities of the tribe. This was the first treaty in which the Potawatomi participated. After General Wayne had Avon the battle of Fallen Timbers in the border wars, peace was made by treaty August 3, 1795 at Greeneville, Ohio, with the Potawatomi and neighboring tribes ceding all their rights in most of Ohio, part of Michigan, and "six mile square at mouth of Chikago river," "twelve miles square at mouth Illinois river" and "six miles square at the old Piorias fort and village." By the treaty of Chicago August 29, 1821, they ceded their lands in Michigan along the lake shore to Grand river including all their St. Joseph river villages and the territory of the Kalamazoo and Paw Paw rivers. Many of the villages reserved were ceded September 19, 1827 by Treaty of St. Joseph, Michigan. These were Tonguish village near the river Rough. Chief Moran at Macon on the river Raisin is still reserved. Mangachqua village on river Peble is ceded. Mickesawbe village is ceded. The Prairie Ronde is ceded, as is the village of Match-e-be-nash-she-wish at the head of the Kalamazoo river, now the city of Kalamazoo. Under the treaty held on the site of the Missionary house on the St. Joseph (1828) Macousin village was ceded. The same treaty ceded a strip of land from Chicago to Rock river that included a number of Potawatomi villages and lands were reserved for Wauponehsee at Grand Bois on Fox river where Shaytees village stands; for Shaubena near the Paw Paw grove; for Awn-kote the village of Saw-meh naug on Fox river of Illinois. Included in the tract ceded was the village of Assum-in-en-kon in Paw Paw Grove. The treaty of Oct. 20, 1832 at Camp Tippecanoe, Indiana, made by the "Potawatomi band of the Prairie and Kankakee' cedes a strip of land on the Kankakee river, reserving all the villages. They were Sho-bon-ier, Wah-pon-seh, Qua-qui-to on the prairie near Rock village, Wais-us-kuckme-she-ke-tend, Soldier's, Min,-e-maung-thes villages on the Kankakee at and near confluence of Maple river. The treaty of Oct. 26, 1832 made at Tippecanoe river cedes lands in Indiana from the Tippecanoe river to Lake Michigan including all of the Kankakee river in that state, reserving for villages of Aub-be-naub-bee, Men-omi-nee (Plymouth), No-taw-kah, Muck-kah-tah-mo-way,' Pee-pin,-oh-waw, O-kaw-wause, Keewaw-nay, Nee-bosh and Com-o-za, Mah-che-saw, Man-ke-kose (North Rochester) Quash-qua Nees-waugh-gee, various areas from two sections to thirty-six sections. The treaty of Oct. 27, 1832 at the same place on Tippecanoe river cedes land in Indiana, Michigan and Illinois, reserving lands to Poca-gan whose village was on the St. Joseph river near the present site of South Bend; Notta-we-sipa located toward the head water of St. Joseph river, Kinkosh at North Warsaw, Mesquabuck on Tippecanoe river north of Warsaw, Chekase" with Waukewa, his son, at Warsaw; Che-chawkose on Tippecanoe river west of Warsaw; Potawatomi Mills were located on Manitou lake near Rochester, Indiana; To-i-sas, Memotway and Chequam ka- ko on the Tippecanoe north of Rochester; Masac adjacent to preceeding; Ashkum and Wee-si-o-nas at Mud creek confluence with Eel river; Wee-sau adjacent to last entry; Mota near Wausau. Other bands ceding lands in 1836 were Maukekose (north of the Tippecanoe river; Aub-ba-naub-ba, and Pau-kooshuck his son, on the Tippecanoe river, north of Rochester; O-kow-mause, Kee-waw-nay and Nee-bosh, also Mah-che-saw, Nas-waw-kee, and Quashguaw, located on Tippecanoe river northeast of Rochester, all in Indiana. Also Pepinewaw, Notaw-kah, and Mac-kah-tah-me-ah adjacent to Menominee's village on Yellow river. The bands of Toi-sa's brothers Me-matway and Che-quaw-ka-ko on September 23, 1836 by treaty the chiefs, head men and warriors of the Potawatomi of the Wabash ceded their lands and villages in Indiana, including bands of Kinkrash north of Warsaw; Miota and Menoquet, Che-chaw-kose on Tippecanoe river. Ash-kum, Wee-si-o-nas and Wesaw or Louison on Eel river. Muck Kose and Qui-quito, Wi-me-go, Menoquet on Tippecanoe river north of Warsaw, all in Indiana.

The treaty of Chicago Sept. 26 and 27, 1833 made by the Potawatomi, Ottawa and Chippewa included all their lands remaining in Michigan and their lands in Wisconsin from Gross point twelve miles north of Chicago, north to the Milwaukee river. Along the river to Fond du Lac. From th& lake to the Rock river in Wisconsin. The same in Illinois. This treaty was approved by the Senate and proclaimed Feb. 21, 1835, ceding five million acres and it provided that members of the tribes should leave the soil of Illinois at once. Those in the territory of Wisconsin could remain three years. This treaty did not include the Potawatomi ancient domain between Lake Michigan, the Milwaukee river, Lake Winnebago, Fox river and Green Bay, and this tribe have never ceded that land. The Menominee did cede it while at Washington, but never had any semblance of right to it. This treaty was intended to drive all the Potawatomi w^st of the Mississippi, but 1500 fled to Canada, 1000 remained in Wisconsin, about 700 settled on the five million acre tract exchanged for the lands ceded in the treaty. This was a fine tract of about one-quarter of Iowa on the Missouri river, with Council Bluffs as the agency. Fear of the Sioux, the hereditary enemies of the Potawatomi, was one good reason why so many of the tribe refused to move. The Indians had hardly located in Iowa, before in 1846, the influx of settlers and demand for the rich lands occasioned another treaty by which for the Iowa lands the Potawatomi were given 576,000 acres in Kansas and $800,000. It has taken forty-seven treat ies and councils for the United States to possess the vast do main of this tribe in Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana and Ohio, and scatter the nation to Kansas, Oklahoma, Canada, Michigan and into the forests of northern Wisconsin.

Many of the bands were forced to remove over the Mississippi river by the military, that took a number of years to partially accomplish. As late as 1848 they are reported as gathering at Platteville in Wisconsin to the number of 800 for removal. As late as 1870 state and national laws were passed to force stray bands to remove, but were not carried out. Some of the Potawatomi by amendment of the treat} were allowed to join the mission at L' Arbre Croehe and their descendants live in the vicinity to this day. In the summer they put on the pageant of Hiawatha. This Catholic mission was founded in 1742. It is located near Harbor Springs on Little Traverse bay.

Simon Kahquados says there were about Little Traverse Bay about twenty-five Wisconsin Potawatomi, and about fifty of other bands, when he visited there a number of years ago.122

The Potawatomi of the Huron, living on the Huron river in southeastern Michigan have kept to that location since before 1795, when they took part in the treaty of Greeneville. When the nation ceded their lands and were to be removed over the Mississippi river this band refused to move and remained in their ancient home. They took lands in severalty in 1888 and all became citizens. They number about 100 members, now residing on Kalamazoo river in Calhoun County, Michigan,118 in the vicinity of Athens.

Major Forsyth estimates the Potawatomi at 1500 (1814) located at Eel river, Elkhart, St. Joseph, Milwaukee, Rock river and Illinois river.112 The United States Indian office reports 1819, 445 men, 305 women, 590 Potawatomi children in 23 villages from 15 to 45 miles northwest of Chicago, 106 men, 144 women 2-0 children in 7 towns 45 to 80 miles about the lake and southwest of Chicago. Mr. Henry B. Brevoort, Indian agent at Green Bay reports in 1824, 300 Potawatomi at Milwaukee on the south side of the river at its mouth. The Rev. Jesse Walker, a Methodist Episcopal missionary, was located among the Potawatomi at Peoria in 1824, and at Ottawa in 1826.

In Kansas

By the annual report of Hon. Cato Sells commissioner of Indian affairs 1918, the Prairie Band of Potawatomi at the reservation in Kansas has'777 people of which there are 416 males, 361 females, 429 minors, 515 full blood. Marriages are legally conducted. There is very little drunkeness or crime. They have one Protestant missionary with 50 communicants and two Catholic missionaries with 250 communicants. All wear citizen's clothing and half of them read and write and are voters. 2363 members of the tribe have been allotted 220,785 acres and there remain no unallotted lands. The tribe is supported by lands and funds. Their income was $283,000 for the year, and the value of their crops at the same time was $214,000. All live in permanent houses with wood floors. None live in tepees. The agency has a hospital and the^Haskell school. They are t:elf supporting. The total value of all stock, chickens, swine, horses, cows, and steers is $157,000 and total value of all their property $1,984,000.

Hon. A. R. Snyder, Superintendent at the Potawatomi Agency, Mayetta, Kansas, writes the author January 31, 1919:

"There are about 780 Potawatomi under the jurisdiction of this agency but about two hundred of them actually reside in Wisconsin. All of them who are living here reside in fairly good houses and the condition of their health is about on a par with that of the white people. Some are industrious and do quite well farming but of course there are many who do not amount to very much. I would say that seventy-five per cent of them are doing quite well. Their lands have been allotted in severalty and' as a rule, they live on their allotments. The soil is reasonably productive but in this state, drouths are common occurrences and about every other year during the past six years has been too dry for the crops. About ten per cent of our Indians cfling to the ancient customs and beliefs and have their religious dances twice a year. The others belong to the Catholic and Methodist churches; also a large number have affiliated with what they call the Peyote [Union] church. The Catholic membership, however, pre-dominates. They are mixed with some of the other tribes but not to any great extent and about fifty per cent of our enrollment are considered mixed breeds, that is, have white blood in them. This is traced principally from the early days when the inter-marriage between the Indians and whites was practiced more than it is today."

Chief Kack kack died February 16, 1907 at his home five miles west of Mayetta, Kansas. He was said to be 88 years of age at his death, having been born on the site of Chicago in 1819. His father had been chief before him of the Prairie band of Potawatomi.119

Hon. William E. Connelley, secretary of the State Historical Society of Kansas visited the Kansas hand in 1917 and writes of them:

"The writer attended the Indian fair held on the reservation of the band in October, 1917. It was a creditable exhibition of the products of the farms of the reservation. No finer corn, wheat, oats, potatoes and vegetables .ever appeared at any fair than was shown by the farmers of the Prairie band. There was no exhibit of livestock, but many of the Indians came to the fair in carriages drawn by their own horses, many in their own motor cars, sortie came on horseback, and these horses were as good as can be found in any farming community in Kansas. Some of them were of fine blood and very valuable. Along all the road through the reservation are substantia? dwellings, the homes of these Indians. They are well kept, neatly painted, and have trees, ornamental shrubbery and flowers about them. The farm enclosures are in good repair and well made. The fields looked to be well tilled. Stacks of alfalfa and other hay crop* were everywhere to be seen. Horses, mules, cattle, swine and' poultry were on every farm. No difference could be distinguished between the reservation and any other Kansas farming community so far as thrift and efficiency are concerned.

And the Indians themselves, what of them? There they were, passing- to and fro before me. The young men are fine specimens of physical manhood. They are stalwart fellows who plow and' sow and reap intelligently, persistently. They evidently bend to their labor with continuity. The old men were of solemn mien, well clad, and with every appearance of that comfort which good homes invar ibly give. Mothers were surrounded by their children, whom they led from exhibit to exhibit, proud as mothers always are of their little ones. All were well dressed, and in style superior to that of whites at some gatherings I have seen on similar occasions. There were young ladies elegantly gowned'. They would have made a good appearance in any assembly or drawing-room. Many of them were educated at the Haskell Indian School at Lawrence. All were modest, respectful, well behaved. The only disturbance at the fair was made by a mean white man, and he was hustled unceremoniously off the grounds by the Indian police.

No more orderly crowd have I seen anywhere. The program promised some of the olid ceremonial dances, and these I was anxious to see. They were chaste, simple, modest, and to me most interesting. They should be preserved for themselves and in the interest of science.

The study I made there convinced me that my faith in the competency and efficiency of the Indian race was well founded.

The Potawatomies of the Prairie band are experts in the manufacture of articles of beadwork. The exhibit of such articles at the fair was one of the best it has been my good fortune to see. Indian art is peculiar to the Indian, and in no way influenced by that of the white man. Its loss would be a loss to the world. Under proper encouragement it would develop to perfection along its own lines. But this development must be made in it by the Indian aflone. The white man will debase it by the introduction of ideas wholly at variance with Indian conceptions. The result would be the destruction of Indian art.120

Oklahoma

Citizen Potawatomi number 2,288 evenly divided as to sex, 1,085 minors, 2,241 full blood. They have two Protestant missionaries and marriages are legal. 2,535 speak, read and write English, and 3,038 are citizens of the United States. All wear citizen's clothing. Part of the bands from Kansas moved into Oklahoma near Oklahoma City, in 1867, and by 1890 there had been 215,890 acres allotted to 1,490 Potawatomi and thereby all of the band were assigned each his own land. All live in permanent houses with wooden floors. They are self supporting. Total value of all their property is $2,238,000 including individual and tribal.

In Canada

Mr. W. M. Wooster investigator for the U. S. Indian Commissioner, visited all the camps of the Potawatomi in Canada to enumerate and enroll them by name in 1907.11T He foiled them on Manitoulin Islands, and east of Lake Superior around the border of Lake Huron, and on the mainland of Georgian Bay and at other points in Upper Canada. On Walpole Island in St. Claire river he found 700 Potawatomi, though not from Wisconsin. 1,423 Wisconsin Potawatomi were found and enrolled in Canada. The total of the Potawatomi members who escaped to Canada on being driven out of Lake Michigan border lands after 1833 seem to have been as many as four thousand. Mr. Wooster reports "as a rule those found residing in Canadian reservations occupy and cultivate land, have comfortable homes, are industrious and prosperous." The rights of descendants of Potawatomi refuges in Canada, under treaties to lands and annuities in the United Slates are unsettled questions both in Canada and this country.

Bark River Band

The Bark river band are situated' about five miles by road and trail from Bark river, Michigan, living in log houses, on private land. They have a church and school .house. Since 1913 under act of congress lands have been secured for their permanent use by the United States, near their squatter day location. They cultivate the land and are reported as prosperous and progressive. Bark river is in Delta County, Michigan, north peninsula, about twenty miles west of Escanaba, on the Ch. & N. W. Ry. There are 50 members or more of this band. They are of the Wisconsin Potawatomi.

The Wisconsin Potawatomi To-day

liev. Erik 0. Morstad of the Evangelical Lutheran church mission, and for many years missionary to the Wisconsin Potawatomi, writes that he and family:

"Moved with the band led by Chief Charles Kisheck (spring of .1894) from the vicinity of Wittenberg', to take up homesteads under the special Indian Homestead act of July 4', 1884 allowing Indians to make entries and after five years residence prove up free of cost when patent in trust would be issued to them free of taxes for twentyfive years. A few Potawatomi families moved with them. They settled on scattered forties, mostly in Forest County, but also along Peshtigo river in Marinette County and some few in Oconto County. Chief Kisheck settled on two forties on the Peshtigo river, in Marinette county. In a short time there were about thirty such homesteads taken by members of the tribe. They had before been living at different places in this timbered north land, without title to the land though they had log huts in villages, made clearings, raised hay for their ponies, and raised Indian corn, beans and potatoes. Every spring even to this day they tap maple trees and' make a good supply of maple sugar. They are the most industrious Indians I have ever known. Charles Kisheck died February 5, 1914. He was an interesting man. He was born at Manitowoc about 1840. The band want an industrial school of their own."1"

Simon Kahquados writing to the author of present day conditions says, they still have tribal customs. The medicine dance and the pow pow dance. The annual pow wow dance continues eight days and each alternate night. It is led by Joe Waubekans from the Kansas band. The customs of these people are simple and primitive, though they now live in one room log cabins with board floors. In 1916 this band had payments from the United States of $25,000, but none in 1918 Seven boys from the band were soldiers in the world war The band do most of their trading at Waubena and Laona Only about 50 speak the American language, all the balance speak Potawatomi and some mixed Chippewa.

No Potawatomi now live in Marinette or Florence county Wisconsin. One family lives in Oconto County on an Indian homestead. One or two members live on the Lac du Flambeau Chippewa reservation. A small village of ten families Kansas and Wisconsin, is located at McCord, Oneida County. All the band except as mentioned above reside now on their own lands in Forest county. The Potawatomi agency al Laona is their sole agency in this state.

It is incorrect to suppose the Mascouten Indians disseminated among this band as it is entirely composed of descendants of the original ancient Potawatomi who have always for over six hundred years or more lived along the shore of Lake Michigan in this state.

In his argument before the Committee of Congress for appropriation in aid of this band Hon. Thomas F. Konop, former member of congress from their district, said:

"They just roamed around' over the cut over lands and in the woods that the lumber companies owned'. Some worked in the lumber camps, and some did any kind of work they could get. But they just roamed the woods, half of them starving'. They had no medical attendance. Their condition was deplorable." (1916).

The commissioner of Indian affairs had many years ago declared the rights of the Wisconsin band to participate in treaty benefits, annuities and allotments of lands in Iowa, Kansas or elsewhere as forfeited because they had not moved with the nation west of the Mississippi. This decision was subsequently held to be illegal and the band given a partial measure of justice:

"The Potawatomi in Forest county town 35—16 live on lands purchased by the United States from their own funds, and title is trust deed, to be held by the Indian Department for twenty-five years. They work intermitantly in the ilumber camps. They have not intermarried with whites, and' there are no half blood whites among them; but they do intermarry with the Chippewa. They intermarry with Menominee, about 2% with the Menominee and Chippewa. Their marriages are mostly by the Indian custom."113

They dress after the fashions of white men, and most of them talk Potawatomi and American.

Hon. J. P. Schumacher of Green Pay who was at Laona (1917) writes the author:

"I met a few Potawatomi. They seem a very robust people. All those I saw were well dressed. They dress the same as the whites except generally in gay colors. I met a brother of the chief with his wife and three children. They loaded their purchases in a wagon at nine o'clock in the evening, then decided to remain until morning although they lived only six miles out. They put up in the hay loft for the night. I was told they dislike to travel at night, and usually drive out a short distance and camp under the wagon at night. The merchants trust them when short of funds and they are reported' to always pay as they promise." emment schools and a number of them are in attendance at public schools.

Mr. W. W. Wooster visited all the Potawatomi camps in Wisconsin to enroll and count them and determine the descent and parentage of each individual in 1907, taking with him Rev. Erik 0. Morstad and Chief Charles Kisheck. He says Kisheck was "by far the most reliable and best versed man among them in genealogical matters" and was employed as interpreter. The points in Wisconsin nearest which groups were collected were Carter, Star Lake, Phlox, Minocqua and about twelve miles from Wausaukee, all in northern Wisconsin, woods. The total enrollment was 457 souls. "Nearly all are mixed blood, the band for years having intermarried with Chippewa and Ottawa. Some few have a small percentage of white blood, but to all appearances they are full blood. They have no fixed homes but roam from place to place picking berries, digging ginseng and other roots, gathering evergreens and working in lumber camps. Some of them have homesteads of 40 or 80 acres on which they have erected log cabins and made small clearings."117

Schools

There are seventeen Potawatomi boys from six to fourteen years of a'ge, and nineteen girls aged six to fourteen (1918) attending school at the Lac du Flambeau Indian school. The board and tuition is paid by the United States at a cost of $200 per capita per annum.

"We have a splendid school here. We have splendid accommodation for them here and are pleased to assist them all we can."

"We find that these children learn very fast and are intelligent and' heaJlthy. Their parents and relatives show a great deal of interest in them. In fact, they would like to keep them at home always and not send them to school if they were not urged to do so. We allow the children to spend the vacation months with their parents and relatives.

The Chippewa and Potawatomi children get along nicely here and these Potawatomi children are especially well liked by the employees and .pupils of the school. We find them to be very responsive and ready and willing to do what is right.

The Potawatomi that we have in school here live mostly in the neighborhood of Laona and Grand on and a few live at McCord, Wisconsin."114

There are a few Potawatomi at the Tomah school in Wisconsin and some at Haskell Institute, Kansas, and other gov

Chief James Waumegesako, and John Thunder, delegate, write the author "They never had school. Children are sent four years to Lac du Flambeau. We need our own school and missionary. We have no school for our own in years to years. We never have no school in our band. We have no education in this our band. We are all glad to have help to have a school here in our poor place. We are cry to have a school for years to years back. Only very few understanded English language among these young Indians."

Old Claims Allowed

A claim of $447,339 was allowed by congress through efforts of Hon. Thomas P. Konop, member of .congress in 1913. A small portion was paid them per capita and $150,000 used to purchase 13,640 acres (1914) of stony land and erect houses on the same. They are nearly all located on these lands. There are no villages. There is only one clan in the band. They all make their own, living.

"By Indian act of June 30, 1913, for purchase of allotments for individual members for that portion of Potawatomi Indians now residing in Wisconsin and Michigan $150,000 to be reimburesd to the United States out of the appropriation, when made, of $447,339, the proportionate share of said Indians in annuities and moneys of the tribe in which they have not shared."

The total sum found due the tribe as stated above has not been appropriated. By act of 1917 $100,000 was appropriated for support and civilization of the band. How this is being used does not appear.

In a letter of the assistant commissioner of Indian affairs of Dec. 10, 1918 a synopsis resume of the legal status and benefits of the band is given as follows:

"In reply to your letter of November 12, 1918, you are advised that under the treaty of September 26, 1833 (7. Stat. L. 431), the Potawatomi Indians in Wisconsin ana Michigan ceded to the Government all their lands in the states mentioned and agreed to remove west of the Mississippi river. Half of the tribe, to the number of approximately 2,000, did so remove, but the remainder fled to northern Wisconsin and Michigan and Canada."

A bill was introduced and passed by Congress on June 21, l'.i06 (34 Stat. L., 380), authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to prepare a roll and report what funds were due the refugee branch. Such a roll was prepared and stibmitted, showing 454 Wisconsin-Potawatomi Indians in the United States and about 1,500 Potawatomies and their descendants in Canada. The report is embodied in House Document No. S30, 60th Congress, 1st session.

Based on this report, it was determined that the sum of $447,339, was due that portion of the band residing in the United States.

The Act of June 30, 1913 (38 Stat. L., 77102), appropriated the sum of $150,000.00, reimbursable from money due the Indians, when appropriated, for the purchase of lands for those Potawatomi Indians residing in the United States. This money has practically all been expended for the purpose indicated, approximately, 13,640 acres of land having been purchased. Subsequently thereto, several appropriations have been made for the support and civilization of said Indians, all to be reimbursed from the $447,339.00 fund due these Indians as above stated, when appropriated.

Under the wording of the appropriation, this money is available for the clearing of land, the purchase of houses, building material, seed, animals, machinery, tools, implements, and other equipment and supplies necessary to enable said Indians to become self-supporting. The money is being expended for the above purposes under the direction of this Office."

Skunk Hill Band

By the kindness of Hon. Isaac P. Witter of Grand Rapids, "Wisconsin, the author was given information on this band of returned Potawatomi from the Reservation near Mayetta, Kansas, who had leased their allotments in Kansas, and moved back into Wisconsin prefering to live in this state. Some of them have taken homesteads and roam about over unused cut-over lands. There are about 150 members in the band, and they are under the care of the United States Indian superintendent with main office at Laona and subagent at Grand Rapids, Wood county. This Wood county band is principally located near Skunk Hill, near the town or Arpin, in Wood county.

The health of the band is very good, the superintendent writes the author. It is believed these Indians are increasing in numbers. Some intermarry with the Winnebago, and when the mother is Winnebago the children are enrolled with the Winnebago. The Grand Rapids agency estimates the number of the band as about 65. The head men and chiefs are White Pigeon or Wahb-me-me, a Winnebago and Potawatomi, and married to Mrs. Deeorah, a white and Winnebago, descended from Glory of the Morning, the Winnebago chieftainess mother who married the French officer De Carrie in 1724 at the ancient Winnebago village on Doty Island, Menasha. Wabshaw Eugene also married a Winnebago woman. Another chief is Shougnuk Kosuch or Frances.

Some of the young people farm and do manual labor. The older people have gardens. The Potawatomi receive very little government aid. They have rentals from their lands in Kansas, and what they can earn or raise. They hold small tracts of restricted lands Oi± public domain in Wood county under trust patents and restricted deeds.

Most of the children of school age are enrolled at Lac du Flambeau and Tomah in the Indian schools. The Seventh Day Adventists are doing religious work among them. Most oi the band speak American, but the Winnebago tongue is as prevalent as Potawatomi. Except for a short time in Kansas, when allotted their lands, some of them have lived about Skunk Hill for the past 52 years, since 1866. The people of the Skunk Hill band are descendants of the prairie bands that lived in the vicinity of Chicago at the period of the treaty of 1833 and were driven into Iowa, and then removed to Kansas as detailed. White Pigeon of this band writes the author Jan. 15, 1919, "This particular Band are called the Prairie Band Potawatomi. There is about 70 Prairie Band Potawatomi living here at Arpin and we have been here about 13 years now since coming back from Kansas. Our leaders were Mr. Shon, and John Nu-wee. Mr. Shon has been dead now about 4 years. Nearly all that are here have bought tracts of land and are engaged in farming on a small scale and not many talks English. We have no school here, save a district school where we tried to send our chi • dren but the teacher failed to take any interest in our Indian children and made no effort to teach them. Every Indian—children and adults has land alotments in Jackson County Reservation, Kansas, and are renting them and there is no tax on those property, but we are paying tax on what we own here. We have no more chief since about 56 years ago, since "Chief Wahb-see" died. Our spokesmen are Mr. John Nu-wee Wehb-sha-gan, and White Pigeon."

Remnant of a Mighty Host

Less than a century past (Oct. 24, 1834) the tribes of Potawatomi, Ottawa, Chippewa were united under the name of the Potawatomi nation and enumerated by the government reports as 64,734. Hon. Cato Sells commissioner of Indian affairs writes the author under date January 15,%1919, "a careful search of the census rolls for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918 has been made, and the following number of Potawatomi Indians reported: Iowa none, Oklahoma 2,284 on Shawnee reservation at Shawnee, 14 on Ponca reservation at White Eagle. Kansas 777 Prairie band Potawatomi on Potawatomi reservation Mayetta. This census contains the names of 77 residing in Wiseonsin (Skunk Hill, Wood County) 355 Laona agency, and 20 of these are at Bark river, Michigan. The census of the Potawatomi as stated above are official documents of 217 pages, containing the names of 3,431 Indians." Adding to this census the 3,000 in Canada and 300 still in Lower Michigan the total of the tribe now remaining is 6,731, a very respectable host "to perpetuate the national fire" "and sacredly keep it burning." If the increase in numbers continues as it naturally will under present favorable conditions the nation may yet realize the erroneous enumeration of 1834.

Archaeology

From a number of the principal sites occupied by the Potawatomi along the Lake Michigan shore in Wisconsin large collections of stone, metal, bone and antler implements and ornaments as well as earthenware vessels and large numbers of potsherds have been assembled. On some of these sites a considerable number of the implements furnished to the natives by the white traders have also been found. A very eonsiderable part of the large collection of the late Mr. .Henry P. Hamilton of Two Rivers, presented by him to the State Historical museum at Madison, was obtained during thirtyfive years of collecting from the village sites lying between his home and Two Creeks. Mr. J. P. Schumacher of Green Bay has in his fine collection numerous specimens from Potawatomi sites in Door and Kewaunee counties. The late Dr. Louis Falge possessed an instructive collection from similar sites at Manitowoc Rapids and other places in Manitowoc county. Mr.-H. George Schuette's collection was made in the same region. Mr. Rudolph Kuehne and Dr. Alphonse Gerend possess fine collections of artifacts obtained from the Black River and other sites in Sheboygan county which the Pota; watomi once occupied.

Sites at Cedar Grove, in Sheboygan county, and Belgium, in Ozaukee county, has also furnished numbers of implements. Mr. Frank H. Lyman has obtained many of his specimens from a site south of the city of Kenosha.

The types of artifacts obtained from these sites are many or most of them typically Algonquian, a stock to which the Potawatomi belonged. Typical pointed-base vessels of both large and small size are in the Hamilton, Schumacher and Kuehne collections as well as other vessels of known Algonquian forms. Fragments of vessels of Iroquoian style have been found with fragments of other vessels at Two Rivers but these may represent Algonquian adoptions from the Iroquois culture. Designs made with a cord-wrapped stick or paddle appear on many of the potsherds found on Wisconsin Potawatomi sites. This is known to be a characteristic of much of the Algonquian pottery in other states. Among the typical Algonquian artifacts found on the Lake Michigan shore sites are the grooved axe, celt and gouge. No fewer than six examples of the fluted stone axe have been found about Two Rivers and it is probable that these ornamented axes are Algonquian productions. Certain types of pipes as well as the stone balls, banner stones, boat stones, "pottery slicks," gorgets and a bird stone or two found on these sites are all characteristic of this culture. In the vicinity of Milwaukee especially evidences of the earlier Siouan Winnebago culture in the shape of artifacts should be found. Here however the city's growth has occupied most of the Potawatomi and other sites.

The Lake Michigan shore sites have produced numerous native copper implements. Of the copper artifacts in the Hamilton collection 361 are from the village sites at Two Rivers and the surrounding parts of Manitowoc county. All of the Algonquian tribes in the states east of Wisconsin had native copper implements and ornaments although in smaller numbers than those inhabiting Wisconsin. At Two Rivers, as evi denced by the chips and fragments found on the village sites, the manufacture of copper implements was carried on.

The Potawatomi were not a mound building people, though they may have acquired the custom to some extent after reaching Wisconsin. There are and were but few such earthworks in the immediate vicinity of the lake shore sites which they occupied. The author in indebted to Mr. Charles E. Brown for the above information.

REFERENCE NOTES

1 The Hand Book has collected 83 spellings, which is about half of the number of changes in the spelling of the name to be found in the books. The spelling adopted in this paper "is agreed upon by the Bureau of American Ethnology and the Indian Bureau." This applies not alone to the Potawatomi but all the tribal and band names that occur. 12 Wis. Hist. Coll., 439. Handbook of American Indians, title, Potawatomi.

2 3 Wis. Hist. Coll., 136 John Gilmary Shea, Indian Tribes of Wisconsin.

3 18 Jes. Relations, 231-3. 16 Wis. His. Coll., 2. 'Jesuit Relation 1641—1642, Jogues and Raymbault. 5 11 Wis. Hist. Coll., 66.

■ 16 Wis. Hist. Coll., 3, 7.

7 17 Wis. Hist. Coll., 249.

s 16 Wis. Hist. Coll., 34.

9 3 History Wis. W. R. Smith, 1854, 43. Jesuit Rel. 1666-1667, 16 Wis. Hist. Coll., 55.

"Jesuit Relation 1669-1670—3 History Wis. W. R. Smith, 1854.

11 "On March 21, 1669 1 (Allouez) took an observation. I found the height of the sun was 46 degrees 40 minutes, or there about, that the height of the pole and the complement is 43 degrees 20 minutes, or there about." Jesuit Rel. 1669-1670—3 History Wis. W. R. Smith, 1854, 64.

12 Wau-Bun, Mrs. John H. Kinzie, 1855. Rand, McNally and Co., 135.

13Proc. Hist. Soc., 1900. 47 An. Meeting held at Green Bay. "The Early Jesuit Missions in the Fox River Valley" by Rt. Rev. Dr. Sebastian G. Messmer.

"Historic Illinois, Randall Parish, A. C. McClurg & Co. 1906, 50.

13 16 Wis. Hist. Coll., 29 Perrot Memoire.

16 16 Wis. Hist. Coll., 160.

17 14 Wis. Hist. Coll 442.

1s Proc. Hist. Soc. 1906, Habitat of the Winnebago, Publius V. Lawson, p. 153.

1916 Wis. Hist. Coll., 409.
20 17 Wis. Hist. Coll., 209.
2118 Wis. Hist. Coll., 8.
23 6 Wis. Hist. Coll., 165.

23 6 Wis. Hist. Coll., 166.

24 13 Wis. Arch., 1915, 169.

23 "A third variety of native tobacco consisted of the leaves of a low growing evergreen shrub called bearberry or lead' red wood (Arctostophylos uvaursi Spreng) reported by Phillip B. Wells, a botanist of Milwaukee, as found in Wisconsin as far south as Fox point, Milwaukee county, in the Lake Superior country and west to the Yellowstone," 4 Wis. Arch. 53, Aboriginal Pipes of Wisconsin, by Geo. A. West.

20 Information on the Potawatomi, customs and villages given to Dr. Alphonse Gerend, 1917, by Simon Kahquados, speaker for the tribe is filed with the Wisconsin Archeology Society. Extracts from these notes have been published by J. P. Schumacher in his paper on the Archeology of Door County, 1918, 16 Wis. Arch., 143. Also see private letters to the author, by Simon Kahquados, under dates of 1918, on file with Wis. Arch. Soc. On a fancy map made up in 1905 and published in Wis. Hist. Soc. Proc. 1905 p. 147, unauthenticated, there is shown a Potawatomi and Winnebago village and the Mission of St. Francois Xavier at the Red Banks. None of which were ever located there. No Potawatomi village was ever located at Red Banks on Green Bay. (Note 122).

"Wisconsin Place Names, 14 Wis. A. S. A. L. Part 1, 1903 Henry E. Legler.

:5 Proc. Wis. Hist. Soc., 1909, Miss Louise Phelps Kellogg, supposes the name of Manitowoc variously said to signify, manito, spirit and devils den, spirit woods, a bewitched hollow tree. "This would seem to point to the erection of a wooden cross on the banks of this river, allusion to which we find in the journal of Father J. B. Buisson St. Cosine, dated 1699-1700. He declares that such a cross was reared in this locality in the latter part of the seventeenth century. His words are: "the 4th of October we came to another small village of Poux (Potawatomi) on a little river where Rev. Father Marais had wintered with some Frenchmen and planted a cross"—J. G. Shea, Early Voyages (Albany, 1861), p. 50. We are inclined to think that the name Manitowoc was derived from the presence of this large wooden cross, such as the Jesuit missionaries frequently planted in the villages of their neophytes." For reference to this noted chief see Note 27; 11 Wis. Arc.—Indian Remains Manitowoc Co. by Dr. Louis Falge, M. D., with picture of Wampum; 3 Wis. Hist. Coll. 17; 11 Wis. Arch. No. 3, 1912.

29 Proc. Hist. Soc. 1901, 175, John Nelson Davidson.

30 9 Wis. Hist. Coll., 153. sx 5 Wis. Hist. Coll., 159.

32 11 Wis. Hist. Coll., 304.

33 Wis. Hist. Proc., 1911, 162-4. In the spelling of Neshoto and Mishicott, the author has followed Judge James Sibree Anderson's paper on "Indians of Manitowoc County," 14 Wis. Arch., 139.

34 Simon Kahquados see note 26 gives names of Wampum's children, Chaiconda, Joe Wau Mexico, Kewas'edoe, Makuns, Fetch, Neu wah gun kum, Ahnah gust, Nogahgahsum. Daughters-in-law were Nahdogoquai, or Out of the Water, or Middle Swamp. Wahnqua or Morning Woman or Martha. They were sisters.

35 15 Wis. Arch., 27-105, Archeological Hist. Milwaukee County Chas. E. Brown, 3 Wis. Hist. Coll., 290; 11 lb. 339; 9 lb. 153-5; 11 lb. 226.

36 18 Wis. Hist. Coll., 375.

37 Proc. Hist. Soc. 1906, 194.

3s 11 Wis. Hist. Coll., 339.

39 11 Wis. Hist. Coll., 226.

40 8 Wis. Hist. Coll., 228. Louis B. Porlier repeats the speech as he heard it recalled by Shononee, or Silver, a Menominee chief at the Poygan council, 184'8.

"3 Wis. Hist. Coll., 225; 1 Wis. Hist. Coll., 42.

43 Bravest of the Brave, Captain Charles de Langlade, 230-232, Publius V. Lawson, 1904. Geo. Banta Pub. Co.

43 11 Wis. Hist. Coll., 210; 18 Wis. Hist. Coll., 384.

44 7 Wis. Hist. Coll., 406. "10 Wis. Hist. Coll., 110.

46 11 Wis. Hist. Coll., 130.

47 See Index 1 to 20, title "Siggenauk."

** 3 Wis. Arch. 11, Arch. Racine County, Geo. A. West. 49 5 Wis. Arch., 369.

"7 Wis. Arch. 98, Lake Koshkonong Region, H. L. Skavlem and A. B. Stout citing a letter by T. P. Wentworth. "10 Wis. Arch., 176.

20 Wis. Hist. Coll., 361.

Mm i0 Wis. Arch. 176, 182.

t*'"°5 Wis. Arch. 314, 338.

r Proc. Wis. Hist. Soc., 1907, 191.

6s History Winnebago County, Publius V. Lawson, 1908, C. F. Cooper & Co., Chicago.

"6 Wis. Hist. Coll., 450, 465.

•6,1 7 Wis. Arch. 27, 23.

,25 Wis. Arch. 395; 1 Wis. Hist. Mag. 143.

s3 Proc. Hist. Soc., 1910.

61 6 Wis. Arch. 14; 5 Wis. Arch. 402-404-405.

*'' 7 Wis. Arch. 2 8.

M8 Wis. Arch. 83.

07 5 Wis. Arch. 410, Record Wis. Antiq.., Charles E. Brown, 1906.

K7 Wis. Arch. 28, 29.

66Private letters to the author (1918) written by Simon Kahquados. Also letters from Chief James Waumegesako to the author dated Nov. 16, 1918.

70" 5 Wis. Arch., 346, 391.

72 6 Wis. Arch., 182-3, Indian Authorship Wis. Antiquities, Geo. A. West.

7311 Wis. Hist. Coll., 238.

»'»17 wis. Hist. Coll., 251, 394.

7s8018 Wis. Hist. Coll., 68, 474, 102, 184, 261, 367, 300.

"*2 16 Wis. Coll., 309, 366.

83 18 Wis. Hist. Coll., 174.

"16 Wis. Hist. Coll., 263.

"3 Hist. Wis., 316, Wm. R. Smith, 1854; 16 Wis. Hist. Coll., 267.

"16 Wis. Hist. Coll., 397.

s7 17 Wis. Hist. Coll., 63.

K 17 Wis. Hist. Coll., 109.

There has been much discussion of the location of this battle. It was not at Maramech, nor in Rock town, in Kendall county. The discussion is too intricate for this paper. But it has been located in these documents as "In a plain situated between the river Wabash and the river Illinois, about 60 leagues (180 mi.) to the south of the extremity or foot of Lake Michigan to the east southeast of 4he le Rocher in the Illinois country," 17 Wis. Hist. Coll., 129. "The Renards were, fighting with the Illinois between le Rocher (Utica, Illinois) and the Ouiatanan." (Lafayette Indiana on the Wabash) 17 lb. 100. "Near le Rocher on the river Illinois." lb. 110. "On the bank of a small river," lb. 111. "On the bank of a little river running through a vast prairie," lb. 115. We locate battle in Grundy or Livingston county, Illinois.

sow i7 wis. Hist, Coll., 172-174, 216-233.

',1,218 Wis. Hist. Coll., 81, 157, 163, 205.

93 Historic Illinois, p. 32, Randall Parish, 1906.

6'Proc. Hist. Soc., 1909, p. 126.

M12 Wis. Hist. Coll., 44; 18 lb., 357; see Note 442.

"11 Wis. Hist. Coll., 17 5.

-"Frontier Defense of Upper Ohio, 7-13; 12 Wis. Hist. Coll., 45.

■■ Frontier Advance on Upper Ohio, 33, 363.

*9 18 Wis. Hist. Coll., 430.

ioo ioi n wis. Hist. Coll_ 11B_ 80_ 123_ 125, 153, 178.

102 History of Wisconsin, 209, Wm. R. Smith, 1854.

,,,318 Wis. Hist. Coll., 257.

"" 7 Wis. Hist. Coll., 309.

105 20 Wis. Hist. Coll., 8.

,06 20 Wis. Hist. Coll., 3.

"" 7 Wis. Hist. Coll., 310.

10,10 Wis. Hist. Coll., 110. "" 11 Wis. Hist. Coll., 317.

'10 Wau Bun, 200; 14 Wis. Hist. Coll., 69.

1'1 12 Wis. Hist. Coll., 231; 1 lb., 72; 7 lb., 420, 321, 323, 341; 11 lb., 290. "v

1,211 Wis. Hist. Coll., 334; 20 lb., 350, 50.

113 Information obtained by Mr. Charles E. Brown from Mr. Nicholas Cigrand, old resident of Fredonia and Mr. P. Y. Mueller, on file with the Wis. Arch. Soc. The names of other chiefs are given by Simon Kahquados in records on fiLe with this society. See Milwaukee Sentinel, Jan. 5, 1919.

•"Letter to the author Nov. 14-18, 1918, by J. W. Balmer, Supt. Lac du Flambeau Indian Boarding School.

115 Letter to the author from Hon. W. E. Hallenbeck, Wausaukee, Wis., Tneas. .1. W.- Wells Lumber Co. See letters to the author from Hon. W. W. Bennett, Supt. Potawatomi Indians Wisconsin, Laona Agency, Dec. 6, 1918.

"6Letters to the author from Rev. Erek O. Morstad Dec. 5-7—13. Rev. Morstad was born Norway, 1860. Came to United States, 1S76. Attended Luther College, Decorah, Iowa, 1879-1881 and other educational institutions. Graduated at Chicago Theological Seminary, 18S9. After three years of mission work among the Wisconsin Winnebago, he commenced his life work as missionary to the Potawatomi, near Wittenberg, 1893, in connection with the Ev. Lutheran Church. In connection with this missionary work he has pursued literary avocation and is the author of one hook. He was of great assistance to the department in taking the census of these Indians, and the members of the band in Canada. He is the only living man who has seen and talked with all the 1500 Potawatomi in Canada and the 500 members of the tribe in Wisconsin. He was of great assistance in securing recognition by the government of their claim of $467,000. Since 1915 he has as assistants Rev. L. K. Dorkken and sister from Litchfield, Minn., appointed by the same missionary society.

117 House Document No. 830 contains report on claims of Wisconsin Potawatomi; hearing before subcommittee on Indian affairs, H. R. 1776 dated 1916, contains the band memorial and argument and the census report; See Memorial of Potawatomi of Wisconsin Document No. 185.

111 Ethnology Bureau Report Tart 2, 1897, contains Indian Land cessions of United States, with detail maps and locations and names of villages. Other documents on part of the tribal story may be found in Draper notes in the Wis. Hist, library as follows: "In 1866 he interviewed Alexander Robinson and Mark Beaubien, Potawatomi halfbreeds (the former a chief) in Illinois, at Napiersville and vicinity. This interview is recorded in Draper Mss. 21S273-90. In 1863 he visited Canada and interviewed William and James Caldwell, who gave him an account of their half-brother, Billy Caldwell, a Potawatomi chief, a friend of Tecumseh. This interview is in 17S217—18, 229-34, 238-40. In 1868 Dr. Draper went to Missouri and Kansas, there he met and interviewed Joseph N. Bourassa and Abram B. Burnett, halfbreed Potawatomi chiefs. In the Tecumseh Papers, Dr.. Draper collected material on Senachewin, Black Partridge, Billy Caldwell, Shickshick and Shaubena. Potawatomi. concerned in the Fort Dearborn massacre. These notes are in 9YY."

1"Life and burial of Kack-Kack is given in 14 Kans. Hist. Coll., 1919, 545-549.

,K,14 Kan. Hist. Coll., 553-4.

121 In 15 Wis. Hist. Coll., pp. 462-3 is told by I'eter J. Vieau, the story of the fatal duel for the hand of the daughter of Wampum, fought with bowie knives, at the Chicago treaty, 1833, between the son of Cornstalk and another, on ponies, resulting in the tragic death ■ot both duelists. In the same paper, pp. 4 67-8 he gives the Potawatomi derivation of Waukesha, Muskego, Milwaukee, Oconomowoc, Mukwanago, Wauwatosa, Pewaukee.

1=2 Statement made to Publius V. Lawson at his home at Menasha, by Simon Kahquados, on a visit from May 27 to June 10, 1919. In addition to the personal relations given in the text there was related to the author the following:

The Potawatomi name for Green Bay was Poje-quat.

For Elkhart Lake was, Mie-shah-wa, Oda-ink, Ne-bais..

For Potawatomi is Poda wautami singular. The pleural is Podawautamik.

For village the word is Podawautamik, Odaun.

For the band the word is Podawautamik, Odo que-no-win.

For the tribe the word is Podawautamik A-new-j>g.

The Potawatomi word Manitowoc means, "Gods Children."

Chief Wampun had two names. Wau-me-go-sa-ko, meaning "A Loon," and Wah-bish-kah-nau-nais, meaning White Eagle.

The name of the chief Nanabougou, as mentioned in narrative of Captain Thomas G. Anderson, should be spelled Nane bo sho. It is the name of the principal hero in the endless story told by the Potawatomi.

The Potawatomi name for Two Rivers is Ne-sho-te-gwa-young.

Dr. Ben Qweewe was a son of Old Dr. Qweewe of Sheboygan County.

Little Prairie Potawatomi village was south west of present Sheboygan city about thirty miles, and south of Elkhart Lake. Its Potawatomi name was Mush-koda-sing.

The place of the Big Stone, on Little Wolf River now in Waupaca County, where the Potawatomi camped on their last trail, was about sixteen miles northwest of Nortlrport. The big stone was about twelve feet square on top of a hill on the bank and was part of the solid rock. 600 Potawatomi died there in a short time of measles or a black fever nearly like small pox.

123 From Pittsburg October 23, 1S12 Captain Heald wrote a report of the massacre at Fort Dearborn. See History of the War (1812), J. Russell, Jr.

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