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Index to Wisconsin Brewery and Related Articles
   

 

Local History Index - Index to Wisconsin Brewery and Related Articles

History    > 1848-1873    History21873-1881     History3 >   1881-1907    History4 >   1907-1933    History5 >   1933-1969 History6 >   1969-1982   History7 >   Post-1982  JSBC History Index

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c.1892


Joseph Schlitz Brewing Co. : A Chronological History

1848-1873

edited and written by Michael R. Reilly, copyright 1995

Published by U.S. Email Advertising Co., Hartland, Wisconsin

Date of Last Revision 01/11/2016

    In the early 1840's, the equivalent of our neighborhood taverns - although on a less reputable social footing - were the "rum holes" which dotted the banks of the Milwaukee River in 1843, when 138 were counted. These dirty and unsightly dives got their name from one of the liquids dispensed, and from their being dug back into the hillside. They were boarded up in front and had crude bars, over which was served rum, low grade home-brew, essig whisky heimer and challet. The last named was a potent mess containing fermented wild berries, watercress, rum and limestone. "Essig whiskey heimer" was a drink concocted by the first German settlers in Milwaukee around the spring of 1839. Since no beer was available, they mixed whiskey and vinegar with a little limestone thrown in to put a "head" on it; it was noted that its devastating effects prompted the founding of the first brewery here. The rum holes had "back rooms" - subterranean tunnels - where the owner could store his beer. Some of these passages were provided with cots and straw ticks where men, women, and children who had just gotten off the boat - 200 or 300 immigrants were arriving daily - could lodge temporarily. Despite its bad name, the rum hole became quite an institution in its day, serving as a social center, bank for short term credit, travelers' aid society, forum and lovers' rendezvous. The rum holes eventually died a natural death, as they were replaced by more modern taverns and hotels. 7-67
    Most new colonists left Europe around early March for the 6 to 8 week ocean voyage to usually New York, from there the typical immigrant traveled by steamship up the Hudson River to Albany through the Erie Canal to Lake Erie (canal boats were generally overcrowded and the worst part of the journey) then took a lake steamer to a Wisconsin port, Milwaukee.


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   In 1848, Georg August Krug (went by the name August, born 1814 in Miltenberg, Germany)  arrives in Milwaukee from Germany and opens up a restaurant on 4th and Chestnut Streets (now Juneau) across from the Gipfel Union Brewery, when this was the heart of the west side of Kilbourntown. His wife, Anna Maria, was originally left behind in Germany while August got himself set-up; several years later he sent for her and she helped in the restaurant by waiting on tables. [See 1850 Census note below]   (Questions- After arriving in the U.S., and where (New York), how did Krug travel to Milwaukee (see above), how long did it take ? Why did he leave Germany? A failed German democratic revolution in 1848 forced many well-educated, politically-active Germans to flee to the United States. The 1848 Revolution attempted to bring "unity, justice, and liberty" to Germany. Is there a record of Krug buying his lot and when/how much; to build a butcher shop around the same time cost about $138 . Was Krug employed by anyone here before he built or leased the restaurant?)

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Krug's Brewery (?- Not Exactly in center of block)

   In Milwaukee during 1849, the neighborhood surrounding August Krug's restaurant was rapidly being transformed into a "Little Germany" as immigrants poured in. The demand for beer increased so much that Krug started a small brewery in the basement of the restaurant. Krug did most of the work himself, besides running the restaurant. In the cold months, he turned out 1 1/2 barrels a day. In the summer, brewing operations shut down because of the warm temperatures. This event marked the meager beginnings of a beer empire. About 150 barrels of beer were produced that first year and could only be made in the winter, due to the lack of refrigerated storage facilities. At this time, beer was stored in wooden kegs or clay "pottery" bottles (at this time there is no evidence that the Krug Brewery sold any of its beer in clay pottery bottles).
    Note to readers: In the book "The History of Wisconsin Volume I: From Exploration to Statehood by Alice E. Smith 1973, on page 531, she states that Krug began his brewery in 1849 in the restaurant he started nine years before. Krug first filled his naturalization papers in New York during May of 1848. But did he? Wasn't there a minimum of seven years of residency required before applying? 


    1850 Federal Census, entry 569-612, August 1, 1850, Milwaukee Ward 2, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, August Krug (Kruz) age 34, brewer; wife, Anna, age 28, both from Bavaria.
[Editor's Note: For their listing there's also a blacksmith, a laborer, and an 18 yr. old girl no occupation, but no indication they work for the Krugs. Possibly just living in same house, dwelling not necessarily where he brews his beer, or has his tavern/inn. No streets are given in census. His occupation as "Brewer" could mean he's brewing his own beer, at this location (perhaps downstairs), or at another. He could be working for someone else; though that was never established after his arrival in Milwaukee. Source: Ancestry.com, 1850 Federal Census, p 67 of 115.]

    The first listing in the Milwaukee City Directory for August Krug is the 1851-52  [the 1850-51 copy was not available]. The listing is "August Krug, brewery and saloon at 48 Chesnut" [Note: The spelling "Chesnut" remained until the 1857-58 City Directory; no 1856-57 directory available]. There is a "George Krug also listed in 1851-52 at 48 Chesnut; this is most likely his father [Read below]

The Krug brewery from a September 30, 1936 Milwaukee Journal newspaper article.

    It was no accident, of where the early city breweries located; located adjacent to a bluff or hillside where vast brick-lined vaults and caves had to be dug to provide the consistent cool temperatures essential to brewing and preserving. The vaults were lined with the white or cream-colored bricks that made Milwaukee known as the "Cream City of the Lakes".
   

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   It was at this time (1850) that 20 year old Joseph Schlitz came to Milwaukee from Mainz (Mayence), Germany and was hired by Krug as his bookkeeper. Joseph Schlitz, born May 15, 1831. Equipped as he was with a fair education, a four year course in bookkeeping (his father, John, was a wine speculator) and some practical business experience, he became a valuable asset to the brewery and a close friend of Krug. Also during this year, August Uihlein, age 8, accompanied by his grandfather, Georg Krug, a 68 year old innkeeper from Miltenberg, came to Milwaukee to see his uncle August Krug.

(Why August Uihlein came to America - The Tauber River in Germany had flooded that year, filling the inn's basement (The family had for years owned and operated the Gasthaus Zur Krone in Wertheim.). Another hotel had opened, increasing the competition. The family's quarters were crowded with four lively sons on hand and Mrs. Uihlein was preparing to add her first daughter, Anna, to the household. Krug offered to take his oldest grandson with him to America. During the trip from Wertheim-on-the-Main, their ship, the S.S. Helene Schlomann, caught fire in mid-Atlantic. Grandfather Krug and August (Uihlein) held on to a wooden box until rescued by sailors of the American bark, Devonshire.)

     Upon his arrival in Milwaukee, Georg presented his son, August Krug, with $800 in gold to invest in the brewery. Krug constructed storage facilities on 3rd and Walnut streets with his father's funds (these were vaults dug into earth banks). His brewery was located on Chestnut between 4th and 5th Streets. The storage vaults had a capacity of 150 barrels; the brewery sold 250 that year. To Krug goes the credit for building the first underground brewer's vault which was tunneled into the hill. The oxen or horse drawn wagons that delivered the brew could often be seen backed up to the door of one of these hillside vaults, being piled high with the cave chilled kegs.

     It's unknown as to how long August Krug's father, Georg Anton Krug, stayed in the Milwaukee area; the 1854-55 Directory doesn't list anyone other than "August Krug, brewery and beer hall on Chesnut between Fourth and Fifth Sts.  No other Krugs are listed until the 1857-58 Directory; August is "A. Krugg, brewer, 48 Chestnut" [notice spelling change], and an "August Krug, carpenter, h. Main, between Ogden and E. Knapp". This is the only time you see this entry.

A panoramic view of the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin originally lithographed by D. W. Moody in 1854.

    The drivers of the lumbering old beer wagons, then a common sight on Milwaukee streets, were powerful men with a fabulous capacity for brew. As they drove from saloon to saloon, with the wagon piled high with oaken barrels and carrying a few extras on tenterhooks on the sides, they favored each customer with their trade, downing at least one seidel of beer at each stop. It is said that each had an allowance of $3 a day to spend for beer on his rounds, which meant quite a quantity at 5 cents a schooner. The beer wagon was a spectacle to delight small boys, who stood gaping as the muscular driver tossed the heavy barrels about like so many bags of cornhusks. They waved to him admiringly as he mounted his high seat and clucked at the powerful Percherons, who pulled the rig - resplendent in their brass studded harness. The typical driver was a pink faced, fat bellied, hearty voiced Fritz, wearing a heavy leather apron and rubber boots. He looked vigorous enough, but it is said that his chances of living beyond 50 were slim. 7-85

    Franz Falk comes to Milwaukee in October, 1848. He had learned coopership and brewing in Miltenberg, Germany. He was employed by August Krug for 6 months then left for the brewery of C.T. Melms as its foreman. 5-338
    Franz leaves C.T. Melms later and establishes the Falk brewery. (A note - It was beer that brought Franz Falk to Milwaukee. The founding grandfather of the Falk Corporation was born in 1823 in Miltenberg-on-the-Main, a small city in northern Bavaria that, like so many other Bavarian towns, was known for its beer. He sought employment in a Miltenberg brewery, and there he learned the skills that would later earn him a fortune. In 1848, when he was twenty-four, Franz Falk decided to test those skills in the New World. Franz departed for the United States, reaching New York in mid-summer. From your editor - Since August Krug's family was also centered in Miltenberg, it's no surprise that Falk worked with him. It's quite likely that the two of them traveled together and upon their arrival in Milwaukee worked together to start the restaurant/brewery. Though, if August Krug filed Naturalization papers in New York in May of 1848, this may be unlikely.)

    When young August Uihlein came to Milwaukee, he was placed in the care of Peter Engelmann, an able schoolmaster and principal at the newly established German-English School (founded in 1851 by Christian Preusser, a jeweler 7-141); was located on Spring Street, (now West Wisconsin Ave.) and Third Street, later the location of the Schlitz Hotel and the Palm Garden. When the Academy opened with its 40 students, the tuition was 50 cents a month. Mr. and Mrs. Krug having no children of their own "adopted" young August, a nephew, whose mother, Mrs. Benedikt Josef Uihlein was born Katherina Krug. Also during this time he learned the art of brewing beer from his uncle Krug by working odd jobs in the brewery; scouring beer barrels, fastening bungs securely and stoking boilers for greater efficiency.

    Note : all brewers in Milwaukee in 1850 made nothing but top brewed fermentation beers; Phillip Best introduced the bottom brewed which used yeast from Germany, imported by the brewer Wagner, who operated a brewery at 12th and Galena but was apprehensive about using it. 5-224 (Note - this would be an incorrect statement if Herman Reuthlisberger really brewed lager beer in his brewery started in the spring of 1841.)

    The natural preference of the German born for beer was not alone responsible for the impressive growth of the brewing industry here. The passage of the state "blue liquor law" in 1850, placing a $1 tax on a gallon of whiskey and the same on a barrel of beer - which held 31 times as much - made the whiskey business unprofitable here, and gave brewing a strong boost. 7-84

    1850 population of Milwaukee approx. 20,000; a ten fold increase from 1840.

    Joseph Hausmann, born in Achern, Baden in 1828, came to U.S. in 1852; went to Milwaukee in 1853 and worked for August Krug until 1854 when he became the foreman of the Haertel Brewery in Portage, WI.. 5-337

    August Krug is fined the sum of $5 and court costs amounting to upwards of $80 for the assault and battery done to one John M. Schreck on July 13, 1853. Schreck had been a patron in the saloon that Krug kept that day at which time Schreck loudly proclaimed his dislike for certain secret societies. He called all the members "nuisances", Krug being one of them. Krug, not so gently, forced the man down in his seat and told him to be quite, in the process scratching him on the neck. MS 7/18/1853 2/4.

    A warrant was issued against August Krug for assault and battery upon Henry Zinn on the 18th of September. MS 9/20/1854 3/1.

    August Krug, in the face of stiff competition, planned becoming a rival of V. Blatz, producing nearly three times as much as the latter before another year had passed. Time passed, and the demands for lager beer grew throughout the country- business expanded accordingly, amounting to $1,500 in 1855.

    During 1855, August Krug returned to Germany and visited his sister Katherina in Wertheim. 23-1

    In 1855 or 1856, August Uihlein is sent to a Jesuit college in St. Louis in accordance with his grandfather's wishes.

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Mrs. Anna Marie Krug

   August Krug's brewery continued to prosper as production and demand rose steadily each year. But after only seven years in the business, Krug died on December 30, 1856, and Joseph Schlitz took over the management of the brewery, in the interests of Mrs. Krug, at the age of 25; wisely investing his savings in the business, becoming the widow's partner. August Uihlein returned from St. Louis with the death of his uncle Krug and went to work at the brewery.

    Schlitz married Krug's widow two years later and changed the name of the brewery to his own, the Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company, though it didn't appear in the city directories until 1859-1860. In 1858, the storage capacity increased to 2,000 barrels.

    The 1857-58 Milwaukee City Directory first lists a Philipp Hartig [Anna Maria's brother] as a brewer and boarding at the Menomonee Hotel operated by one A. King, proprietor. Joseph Schlitz is listed as a book-keeper at the A. Krug brewery.

    Also in 1858, August Uihlein, at age 16, convinced Schlitz to hire him as a bookkeeper after only 60 days training in the subject in St. Louis. August proposed to take a company inventory and revamp the brewery's accounting system from single to double-entry bookkeeping. While holding down a full-time job (age 17) at the Second Ward Savings Bank (now First Wisconsin) for no salary, he utilized this training to work on the brewery's accounting books in the evening. For his efforts at the Second Ward Savings Bank, he received a gold pen from Valentine Blatz after a year of service.

    The 1858-59 Directory shows Philip Hartig working and living at the [Krug] saloon at 48 Chestnut. Joseph Schlitz is listed as the book-keeper for Krug's Brewery, and boards at the same 48 Chestnut location. This Directory is the first and last to list Anna Krug as the widow of August; her home is 48 Chestnut. In the wills of Joseph and Anna Maria Schlitz, a Charles Schmidt is listed as a beneficiary; in this Directory he is listed as working in the saloon on Chestnut. Later he [Charles] is working at the Second Ward Bank as a Clerk.

    He (Schlitz) purchased the small Rheude & Co. Brewery located on Third and Walnut streets, and later the Pfeifer Brewery, known as the Green Bay Brewery, also located near Walnut Street. Active in civic affairs, he was one of the founders (secretary) of the Brewers' Fire Insurance Co. of America, a member of the United States Brewers' Association, secretary of the Milwaukee Brewers' Association, and vice-president of the Second Ward Savings Bank.

   

   (Editor's Note - Somewhere in my archives or I read it somewhere, Joseph Schlitz sold the original Krug restaurant/brewery about this time - could it have become the Simon J. Meister Brewery?)

    <---The broadside announcement to the left is early evidence of how swiftly Joseph Schlitz moved to expand the his new brewery's influence. Frederick Jaegerhuber who had owned this saloon at Mill and Main Sts. in Waukesha, sold his interest in it to Joseph Schlitz. Schlitz in turn, thru his agent, C.W. Bennett, sold some of the saloon contents and remodeled it to sell his brew. Source: Michael Harter's Saloon: A Man's Place, by Douglas T. Hennig, page 12, Landmark, issue Winter, 1986.

    The 1859-60 Directory lists no Krug or Hartig and the Rheude & Co. brewery has no listing.  Joseph Schlitz isn't listed under the commercial heading "Brewers", but is as a brewer at Chestnut between Fourth and Fifth, his home.

    The 1860 Census page 76, 584-630, lists the following for Joseph Schlitz:

Joseph Schlitz, age 30, occ. brewmaster, property value - $50,000; born Hesse Darmstadt
Nanna (Anna Maria) Schlitz, age 36, female, born Bavaria.

Philip Hartig, age 32, occ. beer hall, property value - $1,500; born Bavaria

George Orth, age 20, occ. bar keeper, born Darmstadt

August Uihlein, age 19, book keeper, born Baden

Xaver (?) Rosenwirth, age 28, occ. brewer, born Baden

Maria Patzer, age 26, occ. servant, born Austria ?

Catherine Fiicert (?), age 26, occ. servant, born Austria ?


    The hop louse chose this period of time to move into the hops fields of Eastern growers. It completely ruined the hops crop in no time. Wisconsin farmers quickly realized the significance and began to grow hops in earnest. With an ample supply at hand the Milwaukee brewers were well able to supply beer to the thirsty Easterners. During the time 1860 - 1865, Milwaukee brewers nearly doubled their production. 11-101 This period of prosperity didn't last very long for that same hop louse made its way to Wisconsin fields as well.

    August Uihlein joined the Uhrig Brewery on October 10, 1860 in St. Louis as a bookkeeper, collector, and shipping clerk for $20 a month and board. He was soon advanced to $40 a month - $39 a month more than Schlitz had paid him. Two years later in 1862, before his 20th birthday, he was promoted to the position of general manager. [Note - The 1859-60 Milwaukee City Directory lists a Joseph Uhrig, brewery, St. Louis, Mo., with a home in Milwaukee on Lisbon plank road. This was the site of the Uhrig family summer home for many years. Some added notes about the Uhrig family: Another Uhrig, Edward August Uhrig (1862-1922) was born in Germany and married Rosa Kehr on March 6, 1883. They had one child who survived into adulthood, Alexander Bernhard Uhrig. In the book "Oconomowoc: Barons to Bootleggers" by Barbara and David Barquist, 1999, pages 21-24,  it's written that the family had considerable wealth, stayed at the Gifford Resort on Oconomowoc Lake (early Town of Summit, Wis.) They later built a summer home on Okauchee Lake. Alexander married a nurse he met while hospitalized, Corrine Dreyfuss; they had one child, Alice Beatrice Uhrig in 1927. Due to financial losses in the 1929 Crash and other personal problems, Alexander hung himself. A little more than 3 months after her mother died in 1977,  Alice committed suicide. Alice's only husband, who she divorced, also committed suicide after the couple parted at a much earlier date. Unfortunately, there is nothing to indicate that any of this family had interests in the St. Louis brewery.]

    The 1860-61 Directory lists an "A. Uehlein, book-keeper, boarding at J. Schlitz, 38 Chestnut" [wrong address listed?]

    In 1860, the Phillip Best Brewing Co. of Milwaukee was paying its workers an average of $25 a month; alleged to compare favorably with wages paid by other Milwaukee industries.

    July, 1860, The Milwaukee Brewing Association is established; the city has over 200 saloons.

    In 1862, Henry Uihlein then 18, August's brother (he was the second oldest), came from Germany to join him in St. Louis. He had served an apprenticeship with a Bavarian brewer while in Germany. But he soon left to become the general manager of the Kunz Brewery in Leavenworth, Kansas. [The Leavenworth County Historical Society & Museum lists a H. Uhlein in the 1870-71 City Directory as a brewer at 4th and Walnut in Leavenworth, Kansas. This is the only listing for Henry.] 

            - Philipp Hartig returns as working at a saloon at 46 Chestnut with a home near Vliet and Fourth. Under the Commercial advertising heading "Breweries", "J. Schlitz, 46 Chestnut" is first listed. There is a mystery listing for a "Mrs., Auguste Krug, Seventh & Poplar" - no known relationship.

            - "grog-sellers" in the area peddling their "grog-work". Some of these individuals were known to cause trouble for local citizens. Source: John Flanagan, of Mapleton, obit June 16, 1862 from the Oconomowoc Free Press

    On July 1,1862 the Internal Revenue Act was passed which specified a tax of $1 a barrel on all beer and a license fee for individual brewers. The creation of the Internal Revenue System at this time was an important event; up to this point the Federal government had been able to pay its way without internal taxation through proceeds from customs duties and the selling of public lands. As a direct result of its passage, a group of Eastern state brewers banded together in a group first called the Lager-beer Brewers' Association or the National Brewers' Association or Congress at its first convention held on November 12 , 1862. At its fourth convention it was changed to the United States Brewers' Association.

    1863 - Philipp Hartig is working at a saloon at 58 Chestnut, the listed location of Joseph Schlitz, brewer. [Was this a multiple typo, were addresses changing, or perhaps the establishment itself was branching out?]

    1863 is the year that Anna Maria's nephew, William Hartig, is reported to have come to Milwaukee on his own at age 12.

    Joseph Schlitz is elected secretary of the 3rd U.S.B.A. congress held October 28, 29 1863 in Cincinnati.

    Edward Uihlein, a third brother, arrived in America in June, 1864. At this time, the Brewery employed six to eight employees. 23-2.

    September 8, 1864, Joseph Schlitz is appointed Secretary of the Fourth Congress of the Brewers in the United States while they are assembled at City Hall in Milwaukee. MS 9/14/1864 1/5.

    1865 - Street address changes again for the brewery and Joseph Schlitz, now 420 Chestnut. No Hartigs are listed from now until 1869-70 Directory.

    Lager beer became even more popular with the outbreak of the Civil War and by 1865, the Jos. Schlitz' sales amounted to 4,400 barrels a year. Meanwhile, the lager cooling and storage cellars of the Rheude & Co. brewery (Anton Rheude and John J. Meister, proprietors; merged with Schlitz) on 3rd and Walnut Streets were used by Schlitz for aging his beer. Incidentally, this was to become the permanent location of the brewery in the early 1870's. (Question - Were Rheude or Meister business partners of Jos. Schlitz? After Schlitz died, Robert Wells mentions in his three article that it took a while for the Uihlein brothers to gain total control of the brewery - not just because their Aunt Anna acquired it.)

    The Zinn Malt and Grain Co. purchased the site of the original JSBCo. brewery and erected a malting plant there, or used the original building(s). A.C. Zinn later merged his business with the Asmuth Malt and Grain Co. into the Milwaukee Malt and Grain Co. (later purchased by the American Malting Co.). 5-597

    The Second Ward Savings Bank was known as the "brewers bank" in 1866 which was controlled by the brewers, Joseph Schlitz, Blatz, Phillip Best, and William H. Javobs. Later the interests of Best were taken over by his sons-in-law , Capt. Fred Pabst and Emil Schandein-while the Schlitz holdings were later acquired by August Uihlein, and August Uihlein owned the greater number of shares, and his word was law, even when Henry became president.

    The 1866-67 City Directory lists Joseph Schlitz, brewer, 418 & 420 Chestnut.

    In 1866, the Farmer's Brewery of Beaver Dam is purchased by Phillip J. Binzel who had served his apprenticeship with Joseph Schlitz and Val Blatz from 1857 - 1863.

    By February of 1867, August was relatively well off and for the first time in 17 years went back to Germany to visit his family. When he returned, he brought his 15 year old brother, Alfred, with him to St. Louis. Alfred soon joined Henry at the Kunz Brewery in Leavenworth, Kansas. [The Leavenworth County Historical Society & Museum lists a Alfred Uihlein in the 1868-69 City Directory, boarding with C. Kunz (Charles). The only listing for Alfred. The Historical Society has a fairly extensive file on Kansas breweries and the name Uihlein does not appear in it except in reference to Cindy Higgin's book which erroneously lists August Uihlein as setting up a brewery in a cave; something which Charles or his Uncle Joseph Kunz did do according to the Society. According to the Society the first brewery established in Leavenworth was in 1855 but no City Directories existed until 1859. In addition, there is no reference to a George or Anton or August Krug from 1859-90. ]

    It is reported that the Schlitz Brewery produced 5,578 barrels of beer in 1867, thus ranked as the number 4 brewery in Milwaukee. Blatz is number one, Phillip best & Co. is number 2, and C.T. Melms is third. MS 1/21/1868 1/5.

    During 1868 ( or late 1867) August Uihlein returned to work at the Schlitz Brewery. The 1868-69 City Directory lists him as "Augustus Uhlein, book-keeper, boarding at 420 Chestnut.

    The monthly German-language publication, The American Brewer (Der Amerikanische Bierbrauer) began in January 1868.

    Joseph and his wife, Anna, were still living in the brewery building on the north side of Chestnut Ave. about a half block west of 4th. It was a malty sort of neighborhood, with Phillip Best brewery up the hill to the west and Charles Gipfel Union Brewery immediately across the street from Schlitz. (from Milw Journal 4/23/1972). 9-1

    In 1869, the city directory indicates that Uihlein was living in a boarding house a few doors east of the brewery. Either this year or in 1870 August Uihlein's brothers Henry and Alfred were hired by Schlitz. The brewery was selling about 6,800 barrels of beer a year at this time. Alfred, being the youngest, had to get up at 4 am to walk down to the brewery lighting his way with a lantern. 9-1

    The 1869-70 City Directory reveals that Philip Hartig has gotten out of the brewery/saloon positions and is now a Lumber dealer, residing at 284 Mineral. Anna Maria's nephew, William Hartig, first appears in the Directory as a brewer at Joseph Schlitz and living at 420 Chestnut.

    Joseph Schlitz is elected Secretary of the Brewers' Protective Insurance Co.. MS 3/17/1869 1/3.

    Milwaukee Sentinel reports City breweries 1868 beer production. MS 2/10/1869 1/5.

    With the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869, enterprising brewers had a new means of transporting beer. They could quickly ship it by rail, storing it in depots along the tracks where it was picked up by distributors. Brewers began staking out exclusive saloon franchises along the railroad tracks leading west. Prohibition advocates pointed to these "tied-houses" as evidence of corruption in the industry. Controversy over the "tied-house," a retail establishment financially controlled by a brewer, gave rise to the popular expression, "I own you lock, stock and barrel." In a "tied-house" arrangement, a brewer advanced money for saloon construction (lock), and then provided the fixtures (stock), and an initial inventory of beer (barrel).

    In Deliver Us From Evil: An Interpretation of American Prohibition, historian Norman Clark concludes that "there was an almost frenzied rush down each new mile of railroad track to stake out new territory [for saloons]."

     It is reported that brewer Schlitz will open a new saloon on the first of next month. It will occupy the store adjoining the old Menomonee (?). MS 6/29/1870 1/2.

    Schlitz erects a new brewery building at the rear of the present one at Third Street; its dimensions are 40 by 100 feet. MS 7/23/1870 1/6.

    Schlitz builds a new large stone malt house on the corner of Third and Walnut Streets. MS 7/29/1870 1/3.

    Builds a large addition to the brewery. MS 9/17/1870 1/2

    Between 1870 and 1871, Joseph Schlitz erected the greater part of the present brewery at the corner of 3rd and Walnut Streets.

    The famous slogan, "The beer that made Milwaukee famous", can be traced to the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. In the fall of that dry year, 17,000 buildings, most of the cities breweries, and its' water works were destroyed. Joseph Schlitz (as well as most other Milwaukee breweries ) sent huge shipments of his Schlitz beer to the parched Chicagoans.  Edward Uihlein joined the brewery at this time and took charge of the efforts to pump beer into Chicago by floating shiploads down Lake Michigan. The grateful Chicagoans spread the word, and Schlitz came to be known throughout the country and the world. By the end of the year, the brewery had produced 12,381 barrels.

    After the Great Fire, August Uihlein hurried to Chicago and established a depot for the distribution of beer; also a brewery called the Schlitz Brewing Co. headed up by  Edward G. Uihlein (hired by Schlitz effective 1/1/1872 - John Notz Jr.), who by this time realized that making beer had a better future than making axle grease. In the early seventies he introduced a branch system of management and distribution; pioneering in this field.

   Additional comments from John Notz Jr. - I have seen the large picture of a wooden slatted car that bears both the SLZ logo and that of The Milwaukee Road in another context: a paper that a nephew of mine, Andrew Goltra wrote for a high school course. It provided evidence for me that SLZ used The Milwaukee Road, rather than The NorthWestern.   I believe that it was on tracks of The Milwaukee Road over which it effected deliveries to the original main SLZ warehouse/icehouse on North Union Street, immediately next to where there is now the overpass over the North Branch of the Chicago River of the Erie/Ohio Streets entrances/exits of the Edens Expressway. Later, there was another substantial SLZ warehouse/icehouse on the Southwest Side. The lore within the Edward Uihlein Family (and I have seen no confirming evidence thereof) is that it was Edward Uihlein's idea to have SLZ use
"reefers".

    1872 saw the Best, Blatz, and Schlitz breweries using 14,000 tons of ice a year.

    It was reported that the beer in one of Schlitz' wagons ran away with the team on Chestnut street on April 1st, and the driver dragged the horses a distance of one block. Everybody looked on but nobody was hurt. MS 4/2/1872 4/3.

    Henry Jante is putting down the foundation for a new malt house to be built in connection with the Third Street Brewery of Mr. Joseph Schlitz. MS 5/30/1872 4/1.

    In the vote of a silver tankard to the most popular Brewer in Milwaukee, at St. Gall's Fair, Schlitz leads the Messers. Best & Co. and Blatz, but friends of the latter are rallying and may turn the tide of sentiment. MS 8/21/1872 4/3.

    A saloon keeper complains that he gets but 26 or 27 quarts of beer to a keg, instead of 32, and wants to know "how is that?". The brewers are called upon to rise and explain. MS 8/21/1872 4/3.

    1872 saw German leaders, among them Valentin Blatz and Joseph Schlitz, form the Wisconsin Association for the Protection of Personal Liberty, to call upon liberty loving Wisconsin citizens to vote for candidates to repeal the Graham liquor law which imposed a $2,000 bond on liquor licensees and would make them liable for damages caused directly or indirectly by intoxication of customers, and imposed heavy fines on those convicted of drunkenness. This was brought on by Republican reformers working on liquor-control. 13-587

   Unused advertising envelope for "Simon Sanders & Co" of Trinidad Colo.., advertising for Schlitz on front, Back has illustrated advertising for "Mihalovitchs Blackbery Juice". Obviously used before the business became the "Joseph Schlitz Brewing Co. in 1873. See next page. 

(Note: We are not affiliated with the Jos. Schlitz Brewing Co. or endorsed by them. Any Schlitz trademarks displayed, or brands mentioned are the sole ownership of the Jos. Schlitz Brewing Co.)

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